Advertisement

Veterinary Research Communications

, Volume 31, Supplement 1, pp 79–84 | Cite as

Anaplasma Phagocytophilum - the Most Widespread Tick-Borne Infection in Animals in Europe

  • S. Stuen
Article

Stuen, S., 2007. Anaplasma phagocytophilum - the most widespread tick-borne infection in animals in Europe. Veterinary Research Communications, 31(Suppl. 1), 79–84

Abstract

The bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum (formerly Ehrlichia phagocytophila) may cause infection in several animal species including human. The disease in domestic ruminants is also called tick-borne fever (TBF), and has been known for at least 200 years. In Europe, clinical manifestations due to A. phagocytophilum have been recorded in sheep, goat, cattle, horse, dog, cat, roe deer, reindeer and human. However, seropositive and PCR-positive mammalian have been detected in several other species. Investigations indicate that the infection is prevalent in Ixodes ricinus areas in most countries in Europe. A. phagocytophilum infection may cause high fever, cytoplasmatic inclusions in phagocytes and severe neutropenia, but is seldom fatal unless complicated by other infections. Complications may include abortions, and impaired spermatogenesis for several months. However, the most important aspect of the infection at least in sheep is its implication as a predisposing factor for other infections. Factors such as climate, management, other infections, individual conditions etc. are important for the outcome of the infection. A. phagocytophilum may cause persistent infection in several species. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences several variants exist. Different variants may exist within the same herd and even simultaneously in the same animal. Variants may behave differently and interact in the mammalian host.

Keywords

Anaplasma animals epidemiology Europe review 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alberdi M.P., Walker A.R. and Urquhart K.A., 2000. Field evidence that roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) are a natural host for Ehrlichia phagocytophila. Epidemiology and Infection, 124, 315–323PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alberti A., Addis M.F., Sparagano O., Zobba R., Chessa B., Cubeddu T., Parpaglia M.L.P., Ardu M. and Pittau M., 2005. Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Sardinia, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11, 1322–1323PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Alekseev A., Dubinina H. and Schouls L., 1998. First detection of Ehrlichia infected ticks among the primary vectors of the tick-borne encephalitis and borreliosis in the Russian Baltic region. Bulletin of the Scandinavian Society for Parasitology, 8, 88–91Google Scholar
  4. Alekseev A.N., Dubinina H.V., van de Pol I. and Schouls L.M., 2001. Identification of Ehrlichia and Borrelia burgdorferi species in Ixodes ticks in the Baltic regions of Russia. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 39, 2237–2242PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anonymous, 2002. Notification that new names and new combinations have appeared in volume 51, part 6, of the IJSEM, International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 52, 5–6Google Scholar
  6. Bakken J.S., Krueth J.K., Lund T., Malkovitch D., Asanovich K. and Dumler J.S., 1996. Exposure to deer blood may be a cause of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 23, 198PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bellström L., 1989. Fästingburna rickettsioser (In Swedish). Svensk Veterinärtidning, 41, 549–553Google Scholar
  8. Bjöersdorff A., Christenson D., Johnsson A., Sjöström A.C. and Madigan J.E., 1990. Ehrlichia equi–infektion diagnostiserat hos häst (In Swedish). Svensk Veterinärtidning, 42, 357–360Google Scholar
  9. Bjöersdorff A., Svendenius L., Owens J.H. and Massung R.F., 1999. Feline granulocytic ehrlichiosis – a report of a new clinical entity and characterisation of the infectious agent. Journal of Small Animal Practice, 40, 20–24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bjöersdorff A., Bergström S., Massung R.F., Haemig P.D. and Olsen B., 2001. Ehrlichia-infected ticks on migrating birds. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7, 877–879PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brayton K.A., Knowles D.P., McGuire T.C. and Palmer G.H., 2001. Efficient use of a small genome to generate antigenic diversity in tick-borne ehrlichial pathogens. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA, 98, 4130–4135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Christova I. and Gladnishka T., 2005. Prevalence of infection with Francisella tularensis, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in rodenst from an endemic focus of tularaemia in Bulgaria. Annales of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 12, 149–152Google Scholar
  13. de la Fuente J., Torina A., Caracappa S., Tumino G., Furlá R., Almazán C. and Kocan K.M., 2005a. Serologic and molecular characterization of Anaplasma species infection in farm animals and ticks from Sicily. Veterinary Parasitology, 133, 357–362PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. de la Fuente J., Naranjo V., Ruiz-Fons F., Höfle U., Fernandez de Mera I.G., Villanua D., Almazán C., Torina A., Caracappa S., Kocan K.M. and Gortázar C., 2005b. Potensial vertebrate reservoir hosts and invertebrate vectors of Anaplasma marginale and A. phagocytophilum in central Spain. Vector-borne and Zoonotic Diseases, 5, 390–401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dumler J.S., Barbet A.F., Bekker C.P.J., Dasch G.A., Palmer G.H., Ray S.C., Rikihisa Y. and Rurangirwa F.R., 2001. Reorganization of genera in the families Rickettsiaceace and Anaplasmataceace in the order Rickettsiales; unification of some species of Ehrlichia with Anaplasma, Cowdria with Ehrlichia and Ehrlichia with Neorickettsia, descriptions of six new species combinations and designation of Ehrlichia equi and “HGE agent” as subjective synonyms of Ehrlichia phagocytophila. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 51, 2145–2165PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Dumler J.S., Choi K.-S., Garcia-Garcia J.C., Barat N.S., Scorpio D.G., Garyu J.W., Grab D.J. and Bakken J.S., 2005. Human granulocytic anaplasmosis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11, 1828–1834PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Eastlund T., Persing D., Mathiesen D., Kim D., Bieging J., McCann P., Heiler G. and Raynovic S., 1999. Human granulocutic ehrlichiosis after red cell transfusion, Transfusion (Bethesda), 39, 117SGoogle Scholar
  18. Egenvall A., Lilliehöök I., Bjöersdorff A., Engvall E.O., Karlstam E., Artursson K., Heldtander M. and Gunnarsson A., 2000. Detection of granulocytic Ehrlichia species DNA by PCR in persistently infected dogs. Veterinary Record, 146, 186–190PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fernández-Soto P., Pérez-Sánchez R. and Encinas-Grandes A., 2001. Molecular detection of Ehrlichia phagocytophila genogroup organisms in larvae of Neotrombicula autumnalis (Acari: Trombiculidae) captured in Spain. Journal of Parasitology, 87, 1482–1483PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Engvall E.O. and Egenvall A., 2002. Granulocytic ehrlichiosis in Swedish dogs and horses. Internal Journal of Medical Microbiology, 291, S33, 100–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Franzén P., Aspan A., Egenvall A., Gunnarsson A., Aberg L. and Pringle J., 1999. Acute clinical, hematologic, serologic, and polymerase chain reaction findings in horses experimentally infected with a European strain of Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 19, 232–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gordon W.S., Brownlee A., Wilson D.R. and MacLeod J., 1932. “Tick-borne fever” (A hitherto undescribed disease of sheep). Journal of Comparative Pathology, 45, 301–307Google Scholar
  23. Groen J., Koraka P., Nur Y.A., Avsic-Zupanc T., Goessens W.H.F., Ott A. and Osterhaus A.D.M.E., 2002. Serologic evidence of ehrlichiosis among humans and wild animals in the Netherlands. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, 21, 46–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Grzeszczuk A., Ziarko S., Radziwon P. and Prokopowicz D., 2003. First molecular confirmation of .Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection of wild European bisons (Bison bonasus bonasus, Linnaeus, 1758) in Bialowieza Primeval forest. Poland, 18th sesqui-annual meeting of the American Society for Rickettsiology, Cumberland, USA, Abstract no. 98Google Scholar
  25. Jenkins A., Handeland K., Stuen S., Schouls L., van de Pol I., Meen R.-T. and Kristiansen B.-E., 2001. Ehrlichiosis in a moose calf in Norway. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 37, 201–203PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Larsson L.-G., Aspan A. and Bergström K., 2006. Persistence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in naturally infected Swedish cattle (in Swedish). Svensk Veterinärtidning, 8–9, 13–19Google Scholar
  27. Liz J.S., Anderes L., Sumner J.W., Massung R.F., Gern L., Rutti B. and Brossard M., 2000. PCR detection of granulocytic ehrlichiae in Ixodes ricinus ticks and wild small mammals in western Switzerland. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 38, 1002–1007PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Liz J.S., Sumner J.W., Pfister K. and Brossard M., 2002. PCR detection and serological evidence of granulocytic ehrlichial infection in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra). Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 40, 892–897PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. MacLeod J., 1962. Ticks and disease in domestic stocks in Great Britain. Symposium of the Zoological Society of London, 6, 29–50Google Scholar
  30. Massung R.F., Mauel M.J., Owens J.H., Allan N., Courtney J.W., Stafford III K.C. and Mather T.N., 2002. Genetic variants of Ehrlichia phagocytophila Rhode Island and Connecticut. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 8, 467–472PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Ogden N.H., Bown K., Horrocks B.K., Woldehiwet Z. and Bennett M., 1998. Granulocytic Ehrlichia infection in ixodid ticks and mammals in woodlands and uplands of the UK. Medical and Veterinary Entomology, 12, 423–429PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ogden N.H., Casey A.N.J., French N.P., Bown K.J., Adams J.D.W. and Woldehiwet Z., 2002. Natural Ehrlichia phagocytophila transmission coefficients from sheep “carriers” to Ixodes ricinus ticks vary with the numbers of feeding ticks. Parasitology, 124, 127–136PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Petrovec M., Lotric-Furlan S., Avsic-Zupanc T., Strle F., Brouqui P., Roux V. and Dumler J.S., 1997. Human disease in Europe caused by a granulocytic Ehrlichia species. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 35, 1556–1559PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Petrovec M., Bidovec A., Sumner J.W., Nicholson W.L., Childs J.E. and Avsic-Zupanc T., 2002. Infection with Anaplasma phagocytophila in cervids from Slovenia: Evidence of two genotypic lineages. Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift, 114, 641–647PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Petrovec M., Sixl W., Schweiger R., Mikulasek S., Elke L., Wüst G., Marth E., Strasek K. Stünzner D. and Avsic-Zupanc T., 2003. Infections of wild animals with Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Austria and the Czech Republic. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 990, 103–106PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Philip C.B., 1974. Tribe II. Ehrlichieae Philip 1957. In: R.E. Buchanan and N.E. Gibbons (eds), Bergeýs manual of determinative bacteriology, 8th edit. (The Williams & Wilkins Company, Baltimore), 893–897Google Scholar
  37. Pusterla N., Braun U., Wolfensberger C. and Lutz H., 1997. Intrauterine infection with Ehrlichia phagocytophila in a cow. Veterinary Record, 141, 101–102PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ryser-Degiorgis M.-P., Hofmann-Lehmann R., Leutenegger C.M., Hård af Segerstad C., Mörner T., Mattson R. and Lutz H., 2005. Epizootiologic investigations of selected infectious disease agents in free-ranging eurasian lynx from Sweden. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 41, 58–66PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Schouls L.M., van de Pol I., Rijpkema S.G.T. and Schot C.S., 1999. Detection and identification of Ehrlichia, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, and Bartonella species in Dutch Ixodes ricinus ticks. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 37, 2215–2222PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Skoracki M., Michalik J., Skotarczak B., Rymaszewska A., Sikora B., Hofman T., Wodecka B. and Sawczuk M., 2006. First detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in quill mites (Acari: Syringophilidae) parasitizing passerine birds. Microbes and Infection, 8, 303–307PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Strle F., 2004. Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis in Europe. International Journal of Medical Microbiology, 293, S37, 27–35PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Stuen S., Olsson Engvall E. and Artursson K., 1998. Persistence of Ehrlichia phagocytophila infection in lambs in relation to clinical parameters and antibody responses. Veterinary Record, 143, 553–555PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Stuen S., Engvall E.O., van de Pol I. and Schouls L.M., 2001a. Granulocytic ehrlichiosis in a roe deer calf in Norway. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 37, 614–616PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Stuen S., Handeland K., Frammarsvik T. and Bergström K., 2001b. Experimental Ehrlichia phagocytophila infection in red deer (Cervus elaphus). Veterinary Record, 149, 390–392PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Stuen S., Bergström K. and Palmér E., 2002. Reduced weight gain due to subclinical Anaplasma phagocytophilum (formerly Ehrlichia phagocytophila) infection. Experimental and Applied Acarology, 28, 209–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Stuen S., Bergström K., Petrovec M., van de Pol I. and Schouls L.M., 2003. Differences in clinical manifestations and hematological and serological responses after experimental infection with genetic variants of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in sheep. Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology, 10, 692–695PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Stuen S., Dahl H., Bergström K. and Moum T., 2005. Unidirectional suppression of Anaplasma phagocytophilum genotypes in infected lambs. Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology, 12, 1448–1450PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Stuen S., Moum T., Petrovec M. and Schouls L.M., 2006. Genetic variants of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Norway. International Journal of Medical Microbiology, 296, 164–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Walker A.R., Alberdi M.P. and Urquhart K.A., 2001. Rose H. Risk factors in habitats of the tick Ixodes ricinus influencing human exposure to Ehrlichia phagocytophila bacteria. Medical and Veterinary Entomology, 15, 40–49PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Woldehiwet Z. and Scott G.R., 1993. Tick-borne (pasture) fever. In: Z. Woldehiwet and M. Ristic (eds), Rickettsial and chlamydial diseases of domestic animals, (Pergamon Press, Oxford), 233–254Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Production Animal Clinical SciencesNorwegian School of Veterinary ScienceSandnesNorway

Personalised recommendations