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Comparative Pharmacokinetics of Gentamicin after Intravenous, Intramuscular, Subcutaneous and Oral Administration in Broiler Chickens

Abstract

The pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of gentamicin sulphate (5 mg/kg body weight) were studied in 50 female broiler chickens after single intravenous (i.v.), intramuscular (i.m.), subcutaneous (s.c.) and oral administration. Blood samples were collected at time 0 (pretreatment), and at 5, 15 and 30 min and 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24 and 48 h after drug administration. Gentamicin concentrations were determined using a microbiological assay and Bacillus subtillis ATCC 6633 as a test organism. The limit of quantification was 0.2 μg/ml. The plasma concentration–time curves were analysed using non-compartmental methods based on statistical moment theory. Following i.v. administration, the elimination half-life (t 1/2β), the mean residence time (MRT), the volume of distribution at steady state (V ss), the volume of distribution (V d,area) and the total body clearance (ClB) were 2.93 ± 0.15 h, 2.08 ± 0.12 h, 0.77 ± 0.05 L/kg, 1.68 ± 0.39 L/kg and 5.06 ± 0.21 ml/min per kg, respectively. After i.m. and s.c. dosing, the mean peak plasma concentrations (C max) were 11.37 ± 0.73 and 16.65 ± 1.36 μg/ml, achieved at a post-injection times (t max) of 0.55 ± 0.05 and 0.75 ± 0.08 h, respectively. The t 1/2β was 2.87 ± 0.44 and 3.48 ± 0.37 h, respectively after i.m. and s.c. administration. The V d,area and ClB were 1.49 ± 0.21 L/kg and 6.18 ± 0.31 ml/min per kg, respectively, after i.m. administration and were 1.43 ± 0.19 L/kg and 4.7 ± 0.33 ml/min per kg, respectively, after s.c. administration. The absolute bioavailability (F) of gentamicin after i.m. administration was lower (79%) than that after s.c. administration (100%). Substantial differences in the resultant kinetics data were obtained between i.m. and s.c. administration. The in vitro protein binding of gentamicin in chicken plasma was 6.46%.

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Abbreviations

AUC:

area under plasma concentration–time curve

ClB :

total body clearance

C max :

maximum plasma concentration

t max :

time to peak concentration

k el :

elimination rate

V ss :

volume of distribution at steady state

V d,area :

volume of distribution

MRT:

mean residence time

t 1/2β :

elimination half-life

F :

absolute bioavailability

MIC:

minimum inhibitory concentration

i.v.:

intravenous

i.m.:

intramuscular

s.c.:

subcutaneous

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Correspondence to E. A. Abu-Basha.

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Abu-Basha, E.A., Idkaidek, N.M. & Al-Shunnaq, A.F. Comparative Pharmacokinetics of Gentamicin after Intravenous, Intramuscular, Subcutaneous and Oral Administration in Broiler Chickens. Vet Res Commun 31, 765–773 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11259-006-3565-0

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Keywords

  • bioavailability
  • pharmacokinetics
  • chicken
  • gentamicin
  • Bacillus subtilis