Skip to main content
Log in

A Field Study on the Effect of Some Anthelmintics on Cyathostomins of Horses in Sweden

  • Published:
Veterinary Research Communications Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

The objective of the study was to investigate different aspects on the efficacy of three anthelmintics on cyathostomin nematodes of Swedish horses. A faecal egg count reduction (FECR) test was performed on 26 farms. Horses were treated orally with recommended doses of ivermectin, pyrantel pamoate or fenbendazole. Faecal samples were collected on the day of deworming and 7, 14 and 21 days later. No resistance was shown against ivermectin; the FECR was constantly >99%. The effect of pyrantel was assessed as equivocal in 6 farms 14 days after treatment; the mean FECR was 99%. As many as 72% of the fenbendazole-treated groups met the criteria for resistance; the mean FECR was 86%, ranging from 56% to 100%. A re-investigation of two farms where pyrantel resistance had been suspected clearly revealed unsatisfactory efficacy of pyrantel on one of these farms; the FECR varied from 72% to 89%. Twenty-six of the horses previously dosed with pyrantel or fenbendazole, and which still excreted ≥150 eggs per gram of faeces 14 days after treatment, were dewormed with ivermectin and fenbendazole or pyrantel in order to eliminate the remaining cyathostomins. A total of 13 cyathostomin species were identified from horses that initially received fenbendazole and seven species were identified from pyrantel-treated individuals. The egg reappearance period (ERP) following treatment with ivermectin and pyrantel was investigated on two farms. The shortest ERP after ivermectin treatment was 8 weeks and after pyrantel was 5 weeks. We conclude that no substantial reversion to benzimidazole susceptibility had taken place, although these drugs have scarcely been used (<5%) in horses for the last 10 years. Pyrantel-resistant populations of cyathostomins are present on Swedish horse farms, but the overall efficacy of pyrantel is still acceptable.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Similar content being viewed by others

Abbreviations

ECR:

egg count ratio

FECRT:

faecal egg count reduction test

FEC:

faecal egg count

epg:

eggs per gram of faeces

ERP:

egg reappearance period

LC:

the lower 95% confidence limit

References

  • Anderson, N., Martin, P.J. and Jarrett, R.G., 1988. Mixtures of anthelmintics: a strategy against resistance. Australian Veterinary Journal, 65, 62–64

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Anonymous, 1989. Anthelmintic resistance. In: P.J. Waller (ed.), Report of the Working Party for the Animal Health Committee of the Standing Committee on Agriculture, (SCA Technical Report Series No. 28, CSIRO, East Melbourne, Australia)

  • Bjørn, H., Sommer, C., Schougård, H., Henriksen, S.A. and Nansen, P., 1991. Resistance to benzimidazole anthelmintics in small strongyles (Cyathostominae) of horses in Denmark. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, 32, 253–260

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Cabaret, J. and Berrag, B., 2004. Faecal egg count reduction test for assessing anthelmintic efficacy: average versus individually based estimations. Veterinary Parasitology, 121, 105–113

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Chapman, M.R., French, D.D., Monahan, C.M. and Klei, T.R., 1996. Identification and characterization of a pyrantel pamoate resistant cyathostome population. Veterinary Parasitology, 66, 205–212

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Coles, G.C., Bauer, C., Borgsteede, F.H.M., Geerts, S., Klei, T.R., Taylor, M.A. and Waller, P.J., 1992. World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (W.A.A.V.P.) methods for the detection of anthelmintic resistance in nematodes of veterinary importance. Veterinary Parasitology, 44, 35–44

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Coles, G.C., Brown, S.N. and Trembath, C.M., 1999. Pyrantel-resistant large strongyles in racehorses. Veterinary Record, 145, 408

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Cornwell, R.L. and Jones, R.M., 1968. Critical tests in the horse with the anthelmintic pyrantel tartrate. Veterinary Record, 82, 483–484

    Google Scholar 

  • Craven, J., Bjørn, H., Henriksen, S.A., Nansen, P., Larsen, M. and Lendal, S., 1998. A survey of anthelmintic resistance on Danish horse farms, using 5 different methods of calculating faecal egg count reduction. Equine Veterinary Journal, 30, 289–293

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Drudge, J.H. and Lyons, E.T., 1965. Newer developments in helminth control and Strongylus vulgaris research. In: Proceedings of the 11th Annual Convention of the American Association of Equine Practitioners, Miami Beach, FL, 381–389

  • Dvojnos, G.M. and Kharchenko, V.A., 1994. Strongilidy domashnik i dikikh loshadej [Strongylidae in domestic and wild horses], (Naukova Dumka, Kiev) (in Russian)

    Google Scholar 

  • Horizon Technology, 1996. DrenchRiteTM, Larval Development Assay, Standard Operating Procedures. (Horizon Technology Pty Limited, Roseville, Australia)

    Google Scholar 

  • Ihler, C.F., 1995. A field survey on anthelmintic resistance in equine small strongyles in Norway. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, 36, 135–143

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Jones, S., Lawrence, S., Yue, C. and Coles, G.C., 2003. Helminth parasites of horses in the UK: a changing scene. In: 19th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP), New Orleans LA

  • Kaplan, R.M., 2002. Anthelmintic resistance in nematodes of horses. Veterinary Research, 33, 491–507

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kaplan, R.M., Klei, T.R., Lyons, E.T., Lester, G., Courtney, C.H., French, D.D., Tolliver, S.C., Vidyashankar, A.N. and Zhao, Y., 2004. Prevalence of anthelmintic resistant cyathostomes on horse farms. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 225, 903–910

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Klei, T.R. and Torbert, B.J., 1980. Efficacy of ivermectin (22, 23-dihydroavermectin B1) against gastrointestinal parasites in pony. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 41, 1747–1750

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Little, D., Flowers, J.R., Hammerberg, B.H. and Gardner, S.Y., 2003. Management of drug-resistant cyathostominosis on a breeding farm in central North Carolina. Equine Veterinary Journal, 35, 246–251

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Love, S., Murphy, D. and Mellor, D., 1999. Pathogenicity of cyathostome infection. Veterinary Parasitology, 85, 113–122

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Lyons, E.T., Drudge, J.H. and Tolliver, S.C., 1974. Critical tests of three salts of pyrantel against internal parasites of the horse. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 35, 1515–1522

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Malan, F.S., Reinecke, R.K. and Scialdo, R.C., 1981. Anthelmintic efficacy of fenbendazole paste in equines. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association, 52, 127–130

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Martin, P.J., Anderson, N. and Jarrett, R.G., 1985. Resistance to benzimidazole anthelmintics in field strains of Ostertagia and Nematodirus in sheep. Australian Veterinary Journal, 62, 38–43

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Nilsson, O., Lindholm, A. and Christensson, D., 1989. A field evaluation of anthelmintics in horses in Sweden. Veterinary Parasitology, 32, 163–171

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Osterman, E., Nilsson, O., Höglund, J. and Uggla, A., 1996. Avmaskningsintervall för ivermektin och pyrantel. Svensk Veterinärtidning, 48, 281–284 (in Swedish, with English summary)

    Google Scholar 

  • Osterman Lind, E., Eysker, M., Nilsson, O., Uggla, A. and Höglund, J., 2003. Expulsion of small strongyle nematodes (cyathostomin spp.) following deworming of horses on a stud farm in Sweden. Veterinary Parasitology, 115, 289–299

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Osterman Lind, E., Uggla, A., Waller, P.J. and Höglund, J., 2005. Larval development assay for detection of anthelmintic resistance in cyathostomins of Swedish horses. Veterinary Parasitology, 128, 261–269

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Pook, J.F., Power, M.L., Sangster, N.C., Hodgson, J.L. and Hodgson, D.R., 2002. Evaluation of tests for anthelmintic resistance in cyathostomes. Veterinary Parasitology, 106, 331–343

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Roff, D.A. and Bentzen, P., 1989. The statistical analysis of mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms: chi-square and the problem of small samples. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 6, 539–545

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Tandon, R. and Kaplan, R.M., 2004. Evaluation of a larval development assay (DrenchRite®) for the detection of anhelmintic resistance in cyathostomin nematodes of horses. Veterinary Parasitology, 121, 125–142

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Tarigo-Martinie, J.L., Wyatt, A.R. and Kaplan, R.M., 2001. Prevalence and clinical implications of anthelmintic resistance in cyathostomes of horses. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 218, 1957–1960

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Uhlinger, C. and Johnstone, C., 1984. Failure to reestablish benzimidazole susceptible populations of small strongyles after prolonged treatment with non-benzimidazole drugs. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 4, 7–9

    Google Scholar 

  • Várady, M., Königová, A. and Corba, J., 2000. Benzimidazole resistance in equine cyathostomes in Slovakia. Veterinary Parasitology, 94, 67–74

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Woods, T.F., Lane, T.J., Zeng, Q.-Y. and Courtney, C.H., 1998. Anthelmintic resistance on horse farms in North Central Florida. Equine Practice, 20, 14–17

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to E. Osterman Lind.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Lind, E.O., Kuzmina, T., Uggla, A. et al. A Field Study on the Effect of Some Anthelmintics on Cyathostomins of Horses in Sweden. Vet Res Commun 31, 53–65 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11259-006-3402-5

Download citation

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11259-006-3402-5

Keywords

Navigation