Skip to main content

Allee effects and soil nutrient changes mediated by experimental plantings of a nonindigenous, temperate liana

We’re sorry, something doesn't seem to be working properly.

Please try refreshing the page. If that doesn't work, please contact support so we can address the problem.

Abstract

Liana abundance worldwide has the potential to increase due to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations and continued anthropogenic forest disturbance. Temperate forests have relatively low liana diversity compared to tropical forests, and it is believed this discrepancy has allowed nonindigenous lianas to disrupt temperate native communities to a greater degree. Due to their nature as structural parasites upon trees, the influence of lianas on forest systems is disproportionately greater than their modest contributions to aboveground biomass, yet the establishment of lianas into temperate communities has not been well studied. We designed a fully factorial experiment to investigate how density (intraspecific competition) and growth orientation (climbing vs. creeping) would influence growth and biomass allocation in wintercreeper (Euonymus fortunei, Celastraceae) an exotic evergreen liana. We also quantified soil nutrients prior to planting and after 17 months of soil conditioning to determine if wintercreeper influences nutrient availability. We found evidence of Allee effects, in which the highest density treatment yielded significantly greater total biomass (in both roots and shoots), longer stems, and higher specific stem length. Soil analyses indicated that wintercreeper significantly altered soil nutrients, increasing C, N, P, Ca, and Mg over the course of the experiment. These findings support previous studies, which found that wintercreeper tends to grow best in dense monoculture populations. While founder populations may be slow to establish, Allee effects combined with wintercreeper’s ability to modify nutrient cycling may help account for this species’ recent recognition as a serious plant-pest following a century of widespread cultivation.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

References

  1. Asner GP, Martin RE (2015) Canopy chemistry expresses the life-history strategies of lianas and trees. In: Schnitzer SA, Bongers F, Burnham RJ, Putz FE (eds) Ecology of lianas. Wiley, West Sussex, pp 299–308

    Google Scholar 

  2. Bauer H, Bauer U (1980) Photosynthesis in leaves of the juvenile and adult phase of ivy (Hedera helix). Physiol Plant 49(4):366–372

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. Berry BJL (2008) Urbanization. In: Marzluff JM, Shulenberger E, Endlicher W, Alberti M, Bradley G, Ryan C, Simon U, ZumBrunnen C (eds) Urban ecology. Springer, New York, pp 25–48

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  4. Bray SR, Hoyt AM, Yang Z, Arthur MA (2017) Non-native liana, Euonymus fortunei, associated with increased soil nutrients, unique bacterial communities, and faster decomposition rate. Plant Ecol. 218(3):329–343. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11258-016-0689-3

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Burnham RJ (2015) Climbing plants in the fossil record: paleozoic to present. In: Schnitzer SA, Bongers F, Burnham RJ, Putz FE (eds) Ecology of lianas. Wiley, West Sussex, pp 205–220

    Google Scholar 

  6. Campanello PI, Manzamé E, Villagra M, Zhang YJ, Panizza AM, di Francescantonia D, Rodriguez SA, Chen YJ, Santiago LS, Goldstein G (2016) Carbon allocation and water relations of lianas versus trees. In: Goldstein G, Santiago LS (eds) Tropical tree physiology. Springer, Switzerland, pp 103–124

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  7. Cappuccino N (2004) Allee effect in an invasive alien plant, pale swallow-wort Vincetoxicum rossicum (Asclepiadaceae). Oikos 106:3–8

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Condon MA, Sasek TW, Strain BR (1992) Allocation patterns in two tropical vines in response to increased atmospheric CO2. Funct Ecol 6:680–685

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Darwin CR (1865) On the movements and habits of climbing plants. J Linn Soc Bot 9:1–118

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. EDDMapS (2018) Early detection & distribution mapping system [online]. The University of Georgia Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health. https://www.eddmaps.org/. Accessed 11 Nov 2018

  11. Ehrenfeld JG (2003) Effects of exotic plant invasions on soil nutrient cycling processes. Ecosystems 6:503–523

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. Frydman VM, Wareing PF (1973) Phase change in Hedera helix L: II. The possible role of roots as a source of shoot gibberellin-like substances. J Exp Bot 24(6):1139–1145.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. García D, Obeso JR, Martínez I (2005) Spatial concordance between seed rain and seedling establishment in bird-dispersed trees: does scale matter? J Ecol 93:693–704

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Gentry AH (1991) The distribution and evolution of climbing plants. In: Putz FE, Mooney HA (eds) The biology of vines. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 3–52

    Google Scholar 

  15. Iannone BV III, Henegan L, Rijal D, Wise DH (2015) Below-ground causes and consequences of woodland shrub invasions: a novel paired-point framework reveals new insights. J Appl Ecol 52:78–88

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. Jordano P, Godoy JA (2002) Frugivore-generated seed shadows: a landscape view of demographic and genetic effects. In: Levey DJ, Silva WR, Galetti M (eds) Seed dispersal and frugivory: ecology, evolution and conservation. CABI Publishing, New York, pp 305–321

    Google Scholar 

  17. Kazda M (2015) Liana-nutrient relations. In: Schnitzer SA, Bongers F, Burnham RJ, Putz FE (eds) Ecology of lianas. John Wiley & Sons, West Sussex, pp 309–322

    Google Scholar 

  18. Klimeš L, Klimešová J (1994) Biomass allocation in a clonal vine: effects of intraspecific competition and nutrient availability. Folia Geobot Phytotax Praha 29:237–244

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Ladwig LM, Meiners SJ (2010) Spatiotemporal dynamics of lianas during 50 years of succession to temperate forest. Ecology 91(3):671–680

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. Ladwig LM, Meiners SJ (2015) The role of lianas in temperate tree communities. In: Schnitzer SA, Bongers F, Burnham RJ, Putz FE (eds) Ecology of lianas. Wiley, West Sussex, pp 188–202

    Google Scholar 

  21. Leicht-Young SA, Pavlovic NB (2015) Lianas as invasive species in North America. In: Schnitzer SA, Bongers F, Burnham RJ, Putz FE (eds) Ecology of Lianas. Wiley-Blackwell, West Sussex, pp 429–442

    Google Scholar 

  22. Leicht-Young SA, O’Donnell H, Latimer AM, Silander JA Jr (2009) Effects of an invasive plant species, Celastrus orbiculatus, on soil composition and processes. Am Midl Nat 161:219–231

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Leicht-Young SA, Latimer AM, Silander JA Jr (2011) Lianas escape self-thinning: experimental evidence of positive density dependence in temperate lianas Celastrus orbiculatus and C. scandens. Perspect Plant Ecol Evol Syst 13:163–172

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Letcher SG, Chazdon RL (2009) Lianas and self-supporting plants during tropical forest succession. Forest Ecol Manage 257:2150–2156

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Liao C, Peng R, Luo Y, Zhou X, Wu X, Fang C, Chen J, Li B (2008) Altered ecosystem carbon and nitrogen cycles by plant invasion: a meta analysis. New Phytol 177:706–714

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  26. Matthews ER, Schmit JP, Campbell JP (2016) Climbing vines and forest edges affect tree growth and mortality in temperate forests of the U.S. Mid-Atlantic States. Forest Ecol Manag 374:166–173

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Mattingly KZ, McEwan RW, Paratley RD, Bray SR, Lempke JR, Arthur MA (2016) Recovery of forest floor diversity after removal of the nonnative, invasive plant Euonymus fortunei. J Torrey Bot Soc 143(2):103–116

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. McGrath DA, Binkley MA (2009) Microstegium vimineum invasion changes soil chemistry and microarthropod communities in Cumberland Plateau forests. Southeast Nat 8(1):141–156

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Mehlich A (1984) Mehlich 3 soil test extractant: a modification of mehlich 2 extractant. Comm Soil Sci Plant Anal 15(12):1409–1416

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  30. Molofsky J, Bever JD (2002) A novel theory to explain species diversity in landscapes: positive frequency dependence and habitat suitability. Proc R Soc Lond B 269:2389–2393

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Personeni E, Loiseau P (2004) How does the nature of living and dead roots affect the residence time of carbon in the root litter continuum? Plant Soil 267:129–141

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  32. Poethig RS (1990) Phase change and the regulation of shoot morphogenesis in plants. Science 250:923–930

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  33. Poorter H, Nagel O (2000) The role of biomass allocation in the growth response of plants to different levels of light, CO2, nutrients and water: a quantitative review. Aust J Plant Physiol 27:595–607

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  34. Poorter H, Niklas KJ, Reich PB, Oleksyn J, Poot P, Mommer L (2012) Biomass allocation to leaves, stems, and roots: meta-analyses of interspecific variation and environmental control. New Phytol 193:30–50

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  35. Rodgers VL, Wolfe BE, Werden LK, Finzi AC (2008) The invasive species Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard) increases soil nutrient availability in northern hardwood-conifer forests. Oceologia 157:459–471

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Rounsaville TJ, Baskin CC, Roualdes EA, McCulley RL, Arthur MA (2018a) Seed dynamics of the liana Euonymus fortunei (Celastraceae) and implications for invasibility. J Torrey Bot Soc 145(3):225–236

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Rounsaville TJ, Baskin CC, Roemmele E, Arthur MA (2018b) Seed dispersal and site characteristics influence germination and seedling survival of the invasive liana Euonymus fortunei (wintercreeper) in a rural woodland. Can J For Res 48(11):1343–1350

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  38. Schnitzer SA, Putz FE, Bongers F, Kroening K (2015) The past, present, and potential future of liana ecology. In: Schnitzer SA, Bongers F, Burnham RJ, Putz FE (eds) Ecology of lianas. Wiley, West Sussex, pp 3–10

    Google Scholar 

  39. Smith LM, Reynolds HL (2012) Positive plant-soil feedback may drive dominance of a woodland invader, Euonymus fortunei. Plant Ecol 213:853–860

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Swedo BL, Glinka C, Rollo DR, Reynolds HL (2008) Soil bacterial community structure under exotic versus native understory forbs in a woodland remnant in Indiana. Proc Indiana Acad Sci 117:7–15

    Google Scholar 

  41. van der Heijden GMF, Phillips OL, Schnitzer SA (2015) Impacts of lianas on forest-level carbon storage and sequestration. In: Schnitzer SA, Bongers F, Burnham RJ, Putz FE (eds) Ecology of lianas. Wiley, West Sussex, pp 164–174

    Google Scholar 

  42. Wang RL, Zeng RS, Peng SL, Chen BM, Liang XT, Xin XW (2011) Elevated temperature may accelerate invasive expansion of the liana plant Ipomoea cairica. Weed Res 51:574–580

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Wang X, Comita LS, Hoa Z, Davies SJ, Ye J, Lin F, Yuan Z (2012) Local-scale drivers of tree survival in a temperate forest. PLoS ONE 7(2):e29469

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  44. Watkinson AR (1980) Density-dependence in single-species populations of plants. J Theor Biol 83(2):345–357

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Weidenhamer JD, Callaway RM (2010) Direct and indirect effects of invasive plants on soil chemistry and ecosystem function. J Chem Ecol 36:59–69

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  46. Wyka TP, Oleksyn J, Karolewski P, Schnitzer SA (2013) Phenotypic correlates of the lianescent growth form: a review. Ann Bot 112:1667–1681

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  47. Yoda K, Kira T, Ogawa H, Hozumi K (1963) Self thinning in overcrowded pure stands under cultivated and natural conditions. J Biol Osaka City Univ 14:107–129

    Google Scholar 

  48. Zouhar K (2009) Euonymus fortunei. Fire Effects Information System, U.S. Department of Agriculture. www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/. Accessed 21 Jan 2017.

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank Sarah Bray and Millie Hamilton for the technical support they provided. This work was supported by the National Institute of Food and Agriculture, U.S. Department of Agriculture, McIntire-Stennis Program under accession number 1011623.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Todd J. Rounsaville.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Communicated by Christina Birnbaum.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Rounsaville, T.J., McCulley, R.L. & Arthur, M.A. Allee effects and soil nutrient changes mediated by experimental plantings of a nonindigenous, temperate liana. Plant Ecol 220, 861–872 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11258-019-00960-x

Download citation

Keywords

  • Allee effects
  • Biomass allocation
  • Density dependence
  • Liana
  • Soil chemistry