Riparian and adjacent forests differ both in the humid mountainous ecoregion and the semiarid lowland

Abstract

Few studies have quantified changes in riparian and adjacent forest across landscape units. In this study, the composition and structure of riparian and adjacent forest were compared in a humid and a semiarid ecoregion in northwestern Argentina: the Yungas forest and the Western Chaco. We expected that differences between riparian and adjacent zones could be less marked in humid than in semiarid regions. Ten sites were surveyed with a block design. An Importance Value Index, Rank-Abundance curves, and Analysis of Similarity and multivariate analyzes (NMDS) were performed to evaluate differences between forests. Stream and floodplain widths, lateral, and longitudinal slopes of streamside were analyzed by a principal components analysis (PCA). NMDS and PCA axes were correlated to analyze the relations among physical and biological arrangements. Results revealed that riparian forest may be very different from the adjacent in both ecoregions. Marked differences in geomorphological and physical features of streamsides were found between ecoregions and they were strongly associated with assemblage distribution. In Yungas forest, dominant species were different at all sites, according to the altitudinal stratification of this region. Within Western Chaco the species Salix humboldtiana Willd. and Tessaria integrifolia Ruiz and Pav., were commonly dominant in riparian sectors. The dominance of these species in both sectors by the widest rivers could indicate that the dimensions of the riparian zone in those sites are greater than those by the smaller streams. Our study reinforced the concept of riparian zones as dynamic ecosystems and we propose considering a landscape perspective in managerial decision making.

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Acknowledgements

We are grateful to Sofia Malcum, Mario Feylling, Nicolas Laguna, Sebastian Albanesi, Guillermo Hankel, Dante Loto, and Carlos Navarro for their assistance in sampling trips; to Luciana Cristobal for helping to edit the image of the study area; to Sergio Georgieff, Ignacio Gasparri, Carlos Cultid, Daniel Dos Santos, and Juan Pablo Juliá for their valuable comments; to Hugo Fernández and Eduardo Domínguez for a review of the manuscript; as well as to the three anonymous reviewers for their comments and suggestions which improved the manuscript. This study was supported by fellowships of ANPCyT (National Agency of Scientific and Technological Promotion) and CONICET (National Council of Scientific Research, Argentina) and the following grants: ANPCyT PICT 1067–2012, PIP-CONICET 0330, P-UE CONICET 0099, and Universidad Nacional de Tucumán POA2-2016/05.

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Appendix: Species list

Appendix: Species list

Species Family Ecoregion Abbreviation
Abutilon niveum Griseb. Malvaceae C An
Acacia aroma Gillies ex Hook. and Arn Fabaceae C Aa
Achatocarpus praecox Griseb. Achatocarpaceae C Ap
Allophylus edulis (A. St.-Hil., A. Juss. and Cambess.) Hieron. ex Niederl. Sapindaceae Y Ae
Alnus acuminata Kunth Betulaceae Y Al
Anisocapparis speciosa (Griseb.) X. Cornejo and H.H. Iltis Capparaceae C As
Arundo donax L. Poaceae C Ad
Baccharis sp. Asteraceae C Ba
Bidens sp. Asteraceae Y Bi
Blepharocalyx salicifolius (Kunth) O. Berg Myrtaceae Y Bs
Bougainvillea stipitata Griseb. Nyctaginaceae C Bo
Bulnesia foliosa Griseb. Zygophylaceae C Bf
Caesalpinia paraguariensis (D. Parodi) Burkart Fabaceae C Ce
Capparicordis tweediana (Eichler) H.H. Iltis and X. Cornejo Capparaceae C Ct
Celtis iguanaea (Jacq.) Sarg. Celtidaceae Y Cg
Celtis tala Gillies ex Planch. = Celtis ehrenbergiana (Klotzsch) Liebm. var. ehrenbergiana Celtidaceae C Cet
Cestrum strigilatum Ruiz and Pav. Solanaceae Y Cst
Chamissoa altissima (Jacq.) Kunth Amaranthaceae Y Cha
Chenopodium sp. Chenopodiaceae C Ch
Chrysophyllum marginatum (Hook. and Arn.) Radlk. Sapotaceae Y Cm
Cinnamomun porphyrium (Griseb.) Kosterm. = Ocotea porphyria (Griseb.) van der Werff Lauraceae Y Cpo
Citrus aurantium L. Rutaceae Y Ci
Croton sp. Euphorbiaceae C Cr
Cupania vernalis Cambess. Sapindaceae Y Cv
Duranta serratifolia (Griseb.) Kuntze Verbenaceae   Ds
Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell.) Morong Fabaceae Y Eco
Ephedra sp. Ephedraceae C Ep
Equisetum giganteum L. Equisetaceae C, Y Eg
Erythrina crista-galli L. Fabaceae C Ec
Eugenia uniflora L. Myrtaceae Y Eu
Geoffroea decorticans (Gillies ex Hook. and Arn.) Burkart Fabaceae C Gd
Hedychium coronarium J. König Zingiberaceae Y He
Heimia montana (Griseb.) Lillo Lythraceae C, Y Hm
Iresine diffusa Humb. and Bonpl. ex Willd. Asteraceae Y Id
Jacaranda mimosifolia D. Don Bignoniaceae Y Jm
Juglans australis Griseb. Juglandaceae Y Ja
Justicia sp. Acanthaceae C, Y Ju
Lantana canescens Kunth Verbenaceae C La
Lippia sp. Verbenaceae C Li
Ludwigia sp. Onagraceae Y Lu
Lycium sp.1 Solanaceae C Ls
Lycium sp.2 Solanaceae C LsII
Malva sp. Malvaceae C Ma
Maytenus vitis-idaea Griseb. Celastraceae C Mv
Melia azedarach L. Meliaceae C Me
Miconia ioneura Griseb. Melastomataceae Y Mi
Morus sp. L. Moraceae C Mo
Myrcianthes mato (Griseb.) McVaugh Myrtaceae Y Mm
Myrcianthes pungens (O. Berg) D. Legrand Myrtaceae Y Mp
Nicotiana glauca Graham Solanaceae C Ng
Opuntia quimilo K. Schum. Cactaceae C Oq
Parapiptadenia excelsa (Griseb.) Burkart Fabaceae Y Pe
Phenax laevigatus Wedd. Urticaceae Y Pl
Piper hieronymi C. DC. var. hieronymi Piperaceae Y Ph
Piper tucumanum C. DC. Piperaceae Y Pt
Prosopis alba Griseb. Fabaceae C Pa
Prosopis ruscifolia Griseb. Fabaceae C Pv
Prunus tucumanensis Lillo Rosaceae Y Ptu
Psycotria carthagenensis Jacq. Rubiaceae Y Pc
Pteridophyta indet. C Pte
Randia micracantha (Lillo) Bacigalupo Rubiaceae Y Rs
Ricinus communis L. Euphorbiaceae C Rc
Rubus imperialis Cham. and Schltdl. Rosaceae Y Ri
Ruprechtia apetala Wedd. Polygonaceae C Rt
Salix humboldtiana Willd. Salicaceae C Sa
Sapium haematospermum Müll. Arg. Euphorbiaceae C Sh
Schinus bumelioides I.M. Johnst. Anacardiaceae C Sb
Schinus fasciculatus (Griseb.) I.M. Johnst. Anacardiaceae C Sf
Schinus gracilipes I.M. Johnst. Anacardiaceae Y Sg
Senna morongii (Britton) H.S. Irwin and Barneby Fabaceae C Se
Serjania marginata Casar. Sapindaceae C Sm
Sida rhombifolia L. Asteraceae C Sr
Solanum sp. Solanaceae C, Y So
Solanum palinacanthum Dunal = S. claviceps Solanaceae Y Sc
Solanum hieronymi Kuntze Solanaceae C Sp
Solanum riparium Pers. Solanaceae Y Sri
Tamarix ramosissima Ledeb. Tamaricaceae C Tr
Terminalia triflora (Griseb.) Lillo Combretaceae C, Y Tt
Tessaria dodoneifolia (Hook. and Arn.) Cabrera Asteraceae C Td
Tessaria integrifolia Ruiz and Pav. Asteraceae C, Y Ti
Thelypteris sp. Thelypteridaceae Y Th
Tipuana tipu (Benth.) Kuntze Fabaceae Y Tti
Trema micranta (L.) Blume Urticaceae Y Tm
Urera baccifera (L.) Gaudich. Urticaceae Y Ub
Urera caracasana (Jacq.) Gaudich. ex Griseb. Urticaceae C, Y Uc
Vallesia glabra (Cav.) Link Apocynaceae C Vg
Verbesina suncho (Griseb.) S.F. Blake Asteraceae C, Y Vs
Vernonia fulta Griseb. = Quechualia fulta (Griseb.) H. Rob. Asteraceae C, Y Vf
Xylosma pubescens Griseb. Salicaceae Y Xp
Ziziphus mistol Griseb. = Sarcomphalus mistol (Griseb.) Hauenschild Ramnaceae C Zm

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Pero, E.J.I., Quiroga, P.A. Riparian and adjacent forests differ both in the humid mountainous ecoregion and the semiarid lowland. Plant Ecol 220, 481–498 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11258-019-00929-w

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Keywords

  • Riparian vegetation
  • Riparian landscape
  • Yungas forest
  • Western Chaco
  • Subtropical Argentina