Plant Ecology

, Volume 218, Issue 10, pp 1213–1220 | Cite as

Nest-mediated seed dispersal

  • Robert J. WarrenIIEmail author
  • Jason P. Love
  • Mark A. Bradford


Many plant seeds travel on the wind and through animal ingestion or adhesion; however, an overlooked dispersal mode may lurk within those dispersal modes. Viable seeds may remain attached or embedded within materials birds gather for nest building. Our objective was to determine if birds inadvertently transport seeds when they forage for plant materials to build, insulate, and line nests. We also hypothesized that nest-mediated dispersal might be particularly useful for plants that use mating systems with self-fertilized seeds embedded in their stems. We gathered bird nests in temperate forests and fields in eastern North America and germinated the plant material. We also employed experimental nest boxes and performed nest dissections to rule out airborne and fecal contamination. We found that birds collect plant stem material and mud for nest construction and inadvertently transport the seeds contained within. Experimental nest boxes indicated that bird nests were not passive recipients of seeds (e.g., carried on wind), but arrived in the materials used to construct nests. We germinated 144 plant species from the nests of 23 bird species. A large proportion of the nest germinants were graminoids containing self-fertilized seeds inside stems—suggesting that nest dispersal may be an adaptive benefit of closed mating systems. Avian nest building appears as a dispersal pathway for hundreds of plant species, including many non-native species, at distances of at least 100–200 m. We propose a new plant dispersal guild to describe this phenomenon, caliochory (calio = Greek for nest).


Anemochory Birds Chasmogamy Cleistogamy Caliochory Non-native species 



This research was supported by the National Science Foundation award DEB-0823293 to the Coweeta LTER Program. Thanks to John Maerz and Jeff Hepinstall-Cymerman for agreeing to be the AUP sponsors for this project. Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory provided the greenhouse for the study. Also thanks to Kierra Love, Phillip Love, Ryan Chitwood, Jared Feura, Mason Cline, Jennifer Williams, Ed and Dianne Ralph, and Mainspring Conservation Trust. We thank two anonymous reviewers for helpful comments on the manuscript.

Supplementary material

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Supplementary material 1 (XLSX 20 kb)
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Supplementary material 2 (XLSX 11 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiologySUNY Buffalo StateBuffaloUSA
  2. 2.Warnell School of Forestry and Natural ResourcesUniversity of GeorgiaAthensUSA
  3. 3.School of Forestry and Environmental StudiesYale UniversityNew HavenUSA

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