Skip to main content

Artificial perches promote vegetation restoration

Abstract

Native ecosystems are continuously being transformed mostly into agricultural lands. Simultaneously, a large proportion of fields are abandoned after some years of use. Without any intervention, altered landscapes usually show a slow reversion to native ecosystems, or to novel ecosystems. One of the main barriers to vegetation regeneration is poor propagule supply. Many restoration programs have already implemented the use of artificial perches in order to increase seed availability in open areas where bird dispersal is limited by the lack of trees. To evaluate the effectiveness of this practice, we performed a series of meta-analyses comparing the use of artificial perches versus control sites without perches. We found that setting-up artificial perches increases the abundance and richness of seeds that arrive in altered areas surrounding native ecosystems. Moreover, density of seedlings is also higher in open areas with artificial perches than in control sites without perches. Taken together, our results support the use of artificial perches to overcome the problem of poor seed availability in degraded fields, promoting and/or accelerating the restoration of vegetation in concordance with the surrounding landscape.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1

References

  • Aide M, Cavelier J (1994) Barriers to lowland tropical forest restoration in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. Restor Ecol 2:219–229

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Aide M, Clark M, Grau R, Lopez Carr D, Levy M, Redo D, Bonilla-Moheno M, Riner G, Andrade-Núñez MJ, Muñiz M (2013) Deforestation and reforestation of Latin America and the Caribbean (2001–2010). Biotropica 45:262–271

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Albornoz FE, Gaxiola A, Seaman BJ, Pugnaire FI, Armesto J (2013) Nucleation-driven regeneration promotes post-fire recovery in a Chilean temperate forest. Plant Ecol 214:765–776

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Assunção LG (2006) Poleiros secos como modelo de nucleação em projetos de restauração de áreas degradadas. Monografia de Bacharelado, Universidade Regional de Blumenau, Blumenau

    Google Scholar 

  • Bechara FC, Malta Campos Filho E, Duarte Barretto K, Vagner de Araújo G, Antunes Zamorano A, Reis A (2007) Unidades demonstrativas de restauração ecológica através de técnicas nucleadoras de Biodiversidade. Rev Bras Biociências 5:9–11

    Google Scholar 

  • Bengtsson J, Angelstam P, Elmqvist T, Emanuelsson U, Folke C, Ihse M, Moberg F, Nyström M (2003) Reserves, resilience and dynamic landscapes. AMBIO 32:389–396

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bevilacqua Marcuzzo S, Ganade G, Araujo Machado M, Brião Muniz MF (2013) Comparação da eficácia de técnicas de nucleação para restauração de área degradada no sul do Brasil. Floresta 43:39–48

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bocchese RA, de Oliveira AKM, Favero S, dos Santos Garnés SJ, Laura VA (2008) Chuva de sementes e estabelecimento de plântulas a partir da utilização de árvores isoladas e poleiros artificiais por aves dispersoras de sementes, em área de cerrado, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. Rev Bras Ornitol 16:207–213

    Google Scholar 

  • Borenstein M, Hedges LV, Higgins JPT (2009) Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (Version 2.2.064)

  • Cardoso da Silva JM, Uhl C, Murray G (1996) Plant succession, landscape management, and the ecology of frugivorous birds in abandoned Amazonian pastures. Conserv Ecol 10:491–503

    Google Scholar 

  • Carlo TA, Yang S (2011) Network models of frugivory and seed dispersal: challenges and opportunities. Acta Oecol 37:619–624

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Carmona MR, Aravena JC, Bustamante-Sánchez MA, Celis-Diez JL, Charrier A et al (2010) Estación Biológica Senda Darwin: Investigación ecológica de largo plazo en la interfase ciencia-sociedad. Rev Chil Hist Nat 83:113–142

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cavallero L, Raffaele E, Aizen MA (2013) Birds as mediators of passive restoration during early post-fire recovery. Biol Conserv 158:342–350

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Corbin JD, Holl KD (2012) Applied nucleation as a forest restoration strategy. Forest Ecol Manag 265:37–46

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cubiña A, Aide M (2001) The effect of distance from forest edge on seed rain and soil seed bank in a tropical pasture. Biotropica 33:260–267

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Debussche M, Isenniann P (1994) Bird-dispersed seed rain and seedling establishment in patchy Mediterranean vegetation. Oikos 3:414–426

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Devlaeminck R, Bossuyt B, Hermy M (2005) Seed dispersal from a forest into adjacent cropland. Agric Ecosyst Environ 107:57–64

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dos Santos MMG, Oliveira JMD, Patta VDP (2011) Chuva de sementes de espécies lenhosas florestais em mosaicos de floresta com Araucária e campos no Sul do Brasil. Acta Bot Bras 25:160–167

    Google Scholar 

  • Duval S, Tweedie R (2000a) A non-parametric ‘trim and fill’ method of assessing publication bias in meta-analysis. J Am Stat Assoc 95:89–98

    Google Scholar 

  • Duval S, Tweedie R (2000b) Trim and fill: a simple funnel-plot-based method of testing and adjusting for publication bias in meta-analysis. Biometrics 56:455–463

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Elgar AT, Freebody K, Pohlman CL, Shoo LP, Catterall CP (2014) Overcoming barriers to seedling regeneration during forest restoration on tropical pasture land and the potential value of woody weeds. Front Plant Sci 5:1–10

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Graham LLB, Page SE (2012) Artificial bird perches for the regeneration of degraded tropical peat swamp forest: a restoration tool with limited potential. Restor Ecol 20:631–637

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Griscom HP, Ashton MS (2011) Restoration of dry tropical forests in Central America: a review of pattern and process. For Ecol Manag 261:1564–1579

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Guedes MC, Melo VA, Griffith JJ (1997) Uso de poleiros artificiais e ilhas de vegetação por aves dispersoras de sementes. Ararajuba 5:229–232

    Google Scholar 

  • Guevara S, Meave J, Moreno-Casasola P, Laborde J (1992) Floristic composition and structure of vegetation under isolated trees in neotropical pastures. J Veg Sci 3:655–664

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hinman SE, Brewer JS, Ashley SW (2008) Shrub seedling establishment is limited by dispersal, slow growth, and fire in two wet pine savannahs in Mississippi. Nat Area J 28:37–43

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Heelemann S, Krug CB, Esler KJ, Reisch C, Poschlod P (2012) Pioneers and perches-promising restoration methods for degraded renosterveld habitats? Restor Ecol 20(1):18–23

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Herrera CM (2002) Seed dispersal by vertebrates. In: Herrera CM, Pellmyr O (eds) Plant-animal interactions: an evolutionary approach. Blackwell Science, Oxford, pp 185–208

    Google Scholar 

  • Hobbs R, Arico S, Aronson J, Baron J, Bridgewater P, Cramer V, Epstein P, Ewel J, Klink C, Lugo A, Norton D, Ojima D, Richarson D, Sanderson E, Valladares F, Vila M, Zamora R, Zobel M (2006) Novel ecosystems: theoretical and management aspects of the new ecological world order. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 15:1–7

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Holl KD (1998) Do bird perching structures elevate seed rain and seedling establishment in abandoned tropical pasture? Restor Ecol 6:253–261

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Holl KD, Aide M (2011) When and where to actively restore ecosystems? For Ecol Manag 261:1558–1563

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hooper J, Bullington R (1972) Invasion of woody plants in abandoned soil bank area of Pine Rock Preserve in Ogle County. Trans Ill State Acad 65:58–67

    Google Scholar 

  • Ingle NR (2003) Seed dispersal by wind, birds, and bats between Philippine montane rainforest and successional vegetation. Oecologia 134:251–261

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Jordano P, Galetti M, Pizo MA, Silva WR (2006) Ligando frugivoria e dispersão de sementes à Biologia da conservação. In: Duarte CF, Bergallo HG, Dos Santos MA, Va AE (eds) Biologia da conservação essências. Editorial Rima, São Paulo, pp 411–436

    Google Scholar 

  • Mansourian S, Vallauri D, Dudley N (eds) (2005) Forest restoration in landscapes. Springer Science, New York

    Google Scholar 

  • Martinez García C, Howe HE (2003) Restoring tropical diversity: beating the time tax on species loss. J Appl Ecol 40:423–429

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mastrangelo ASE (2014) Conservation on the frontier: understanding and influencing how cattle production impacts avian diversity in the dry Chaco forests. Doctoral dissertation, Victoria University of Wellington

  • McCay TS, McCay DH, Czajka JL (2008) Deposition of exotic bird-dispersed seeds into three habitats of a fragmented landscape in the northeastern United States. Plant Ecol 203:59–67

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • McClanahan TR, Wolfe RW (1993) Accelerating forest succession in a fragmented landscape: the role of birds and perches. Conserv Biol 7:279–288

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • McDonnell MJ, Stiles EW (1983) The structural complexity of old field vegetation and the recruitment of bird-dispersed plant species. Oecologia 56:109–116

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Melo VA, Griffith JJ, de Marco Junior P, Silva E, Lopes de Souza A, Carneiro Guedes M, Faria Ozório T (2000) Efeito de poleiros artificiais na dispersão de sementes por aves. Rev Árvore 24:235–240

    Google Scholar 

  • Moran E, Brondizio E (1994) Integrating Amazonian vegetation, land-use, and satellite data. Bioscience 44:329–338

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ne’eman G, Izhaki I (1996) Colonization in an abandoned East Mediterranean vineyard. J Veg Sci 7:465–472

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Parejo SH, Ceia RS, Ramos JA, Sampaio HL, Heleno RH (2013) Tiptoeing between restoration and invasion: seed rain into natural gaps within a highly invaded relic forest in the Azores. Eur J For Res 133:383–390

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Parrotta J, Turnbull J, Jones N (2007) Catalyzing native forest regeneration on degraded forest lands. For Ecol Manag 99:1–7

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pausas JG, Bonet A, Maestre FT, Climent A (2006) The role of the perch effect on the nucleation process in Mediterranean semi-arid oldfields. Acta Oecol 29:346–352

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pejchar L, Pringle RM, Ranganathan J, Zook JR, Duran G, Oviedo F, Daily GC, Rica C (2007) Birds as agents of seed dispersal in a human-dominated landscape in southern Costa Rica. Biol Conserv 141:536–544

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ponce AM, Grilli G, Galetto L (2012) Frugivoría y remoción de frutos ornitócoros en fragmentos del bosque chaqueño de Córdoba (Argentina). Bosque 33:07–08

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Reid JL, Holl KD (2013) Arrival ≠ survival. Restor Ecol 21:153–155

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Reis A, Bechara FC, Bazzo de Espíndola M, Vieira N, Lopes de Souza L (2003) Restauração de áreas degradadas: a nucleação como base para incrementar os processos sucessionais. Nat Conserv 1:28–36

    Google Scholar 

  • Reis A, Bechara FC, Tres DR (2010) Nucleation in tropical ecological restoration. Sci Agric 67:244–250

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rincón Guarín DA (2005) Bird perches increase seed dispersal in abandoned pastures at Colombian Andean forests. Degree dissertation, Universidad Industrial de Santander

  • Rudge AC (2008) Contribuição da chuva de sementes na recuperação de áreas e do uso de poleiros como técnica catalisadora da sucessão natural. Dissertação de Mestrado, Universidade Federal Rural Do Rio De Janeiro, Seropédica

    Google Scholar 

  • Schorn LA, Krieger A, Nadolny MC (2010) Avaliação de técnicas para indução da regeneração natural em área de preservação permanente sob uso anterior do solo com Pinus elliottii. Floresta 40:281–294

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Scott R, Pattanakaew P, Maxwell JF, Elliott S (2000) The effect of artificial perches and local vegetation on bird-dispersed seed deposition into regenerating sites. In: Elliott S, Kerby J, Blakesley D, Hardwick K, Woods K, Anusarnsunthorn V (eds) Forest restoration for wildlife conservation. International Tropical Timber Organisation and The Forest Restoration Research Unit, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, pp 327–337

    Google Scholar 

  • Sekercioglu CH (2007) Ecosystem functions and services. In: Sodhi NS, Ehrlich PR (eds) Conservation biology for all. Oxford University Press, Oxford

    Google Scholar 

  • Shiflett SA, Young DR (2010) Avian seed dispersal on Virginia barrier islands: potential influence on vegetation community structure and patch dynamics. Am Midl Nat 164:91–106

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shoo LP, Catterall CP (2013) Stimulating natural regeneration of tropical forest on degraded land: approaches, outcomes, and information gaps. Restor Ecol 21:670–677

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Toh I, Gillespie M, Lamb D (1999) The role of isolated trees in facilitating tree seedling recruitment at a degraded sub-tropical rainforest site. Restor Ecol 7:288–297

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tomazi AL, Zimmermann CE, Laps RR (2010) Poleiros artificiais como modelo de nucleação para restauração de ambientes ciliares: caracterização da chuva de sementes e regeneração natural. Biotemas 23:125–135

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tres DR (2006) Restauração ecológica de uma mata ciliar em uma fazenda produtora de Pinus Taeda L. no norte do estado de Santa Catarina. Dissertação de Mestrado, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina

  • Tres DR, Reis A (2009) Técnicas nucleadoras na restauração de floresta ribeirinha em área de Floresta Ombrófila Mista, Sul do Brasil. Rev Biotemas 22:59–71

    Google Scholar 

  • Tummers B (2006) DataThief III. http://datathief.org/.

  • Vicente R, Martins R, Zocche JJ, Harter-Marques B (2010) Seed dispersal by birds on artificial perches in reclaimed areas after surface coal mining in Siderópolis municipality, Santa Catarina state, Brazil. Braz J Biosci 4849:14–23

    Google Scholar 

  • White E, Vivian-Smith G, Barnes A (2009) Variation in exotic and native seed arrival and recruitment of bird dispersed species in subtropical forest restoration and regrowth. Plant Ecol 204:231–246

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yarranton G, Morrison R (1974) Spatial dynamics of a primary succession: nucleation. J Ecol 62:417–428

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zwiener VP, Cardoso FCG, Padial AA, Marques MCM (2014) Disentangling the effects of facilitation on restoration of the Atlantic forest. Basic Appl Ecol 15:34–41

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

We thank all authors of the studies who kindly shared the data used in our analyses. BG was supported by a Ph.D. fellowship from Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET) during this project.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Brenda Yamile Guidetti.

Additional information

Communicated by Martin Nunez.

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 94 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Guidetti, B.Y., Amico, G.C., Dardanelli, S. et al. Artificial perches promote vegetation restoration. Plant Ecol 217, 935–942 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11258-016-0619-4

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11258-016-0619-4

Keywords

  • Seed dispersal
  • Seedling establishment
  • Fruit-eating birds
  • Degraded landscapes
  • Meta-analyses