Temporal and small-scale spatial variation in grassland productivity, biomass quality, and nutrient limitation
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Characterization of spatial and temporal variation in grassland productivity and nutrition is crucial for a comprehensive understanding of ecosystem function. Although within-site heterogeneity in soil and plant properties has been shown to be relevant for plant community stability, spatiotemporal variability in these factors is still understudied in temperate grasslands. Our study aimed to detect if soil characteristics and plant diversity could explain observed small-scale spatial and temporal variability in grassland productivity, biomass nutrient concentrations, and nutrient limitation. Therefore, we sampled 360 plots of 20 cm × 20 cm each at six consecutive dates in an unfertilized grassland in Southern Germany. Nutrient limitation was estimated using nutrient ratios in plant biomass. Absolute values of, and spatial variability in, productivity, biomass nutrient concentrations, and nutrient limitation were strongly associated with sampling date. In April, spatial heterogeneity was high and most plots showed phosphorous deficiency, while later in the season nitrogen was the major limiting nutrient. Additionally, a small significant positive association between plant diversity and biomass phosphorus concentrations was observed, but should be tested in more detail. We discuss how low biological activity e.g., of soil microbial organisms might have influenced observed heterogeneity of plant nutrition in early spring in combination with reduced active acquisition of soil resources by plants. These early-season conditions are particularly relevant for future studies as they differ substantially from more thoroughly studied later season conditions. Our study underlines the importance of considering small spatial scales and temporal variability to better elucidate mechanisms of ecosystem functioning and plant community assembly.
KeywordsNitrogen Phosphorus Biodiversity Exploratories Project Nutrient concentrations Biodiversity–ecosystem functioning Growth limitation
We thank Jörg Lüling for untiring work while conducting biomass analyses in the laboratory, the managers of the Exploratory Schwäbische Alb, Swen Renner and Kirsten Reichel-Jung, for their work in maintaining the plot and project infrastructure, Simone Pfeiffer and Christiane Fischer giving support through the central office, Michael Owonibi for managing the central data base and Markus Fischer, Eduard Linsenmair, Dominik Hessenmöller, Jens Nieschulze, Ingo Schöning, François Buscot, Ernst-Detlef Schulze, Wolfgang W. Weisser, and the late Elisabeth Kalko for their role in setting up the Biodiversity Exploratories project.
The work has been funded by the DFG Priority Program 1374 “Infrastructure-Biodiversity-Exploratories” (FI 1246/6-1, FI 1246/9-1, HO 3830/2-2, KA 1590/8-2, OE 516/1-2). All funding bodies are listed and no funding body was involved in conducting and publishing the experiment and its results.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
Thus, the authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Field work permit
Field work permits were issued by the responsible state environmental offices of Baden-Württemberg.
Research involving human and animal rights
The study did not involve any experiments with humans or animals.
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