A recommendation approach for user privacy preferences in the fitness domain

Abstract

Fitness trackers are undoubtedly gaining in popularity. As fitness-related data are persistently captured, stored, and processed by these devices, the need to ensure users’ privacy is becoming increasingly urgent. In this paper, we apply a data-driven approach to the development of privacy-setting recommendations for fitness devices. We first present a fitness data privacy model that we defined to represent users’ privacy preferences in a way that is unambiguous, compliant with the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), and able to represent both the user and the third party preferences. Our crowdsourced dataset is collected using current scenarios in the fitness domain and used to identify privacy profiles by applying machine learning techniques. We then examine different personal tracking data and user traits which can potentially drive the recommendation of privacy profiles to the users. Finally, a set of privacy-setting recommendation strategies with different guidance styles are designed based on the resulting profiles. Interestingly, our results show several semantic relationships among users’ traits, characteristics, and attitudes that are useful in providing privacy recommendations. Even though several works exist on privacy preference modeling, this paper makes a contribution in modeling privacy preferences for data sharing and processing in the IoT and fitness domain, with specific attention to GDPR compliance. Moreover, the identification of well-identified clusters of preferences and predictors of such clusters is a relevant contribution for user profiling and for the design of interactive recommendation strategies that aim to balance users’ control over their privacy permissions and the simplicity of setting these permissions.

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Notes

  1. 1.

    https://support.google.com/googleplay/answer/6014972?co=GENIE.Platform%3DAndroid&hl=en.

  2. 2.

    https://developer.android.com/about/dashboards/index.html.

  3. 3.

    https://developer.apple.com/library/content/releasenotes/General/WhatsNewIniOS/Articles/iOS6.html#//apple_ref/doc/uid/TP40011812-SW1.

  4. 4.

    https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/data-privacy-manager-pro-security-suit-to-lock-my-private/id625761168?mt=8

  5. 5.

    Platform for Privacy Preferences https://www.w3.org/P3P/.

  6. 6.

    http://www.pewinternet.org/2015/11/10/apps-permissions-in-the-google-play-store/.

  7. 7.

    https://blog.globalwebindex.com/chart-of-the-day/digital-consumers-own-3-64-connected-devices/.

  8. 8.

    http://pdm-aids.dibris.unige.it/PPIoT.

  9. 9.

    http://vocab.deri.ie/ppo.

  10. 10.

    https://www.w3.org/ns/ssn/.

  11. 11.

    The distinction among such subjects in the GDPR, which clarifies the legal obligations of the TP, is not relevant to the aim of a user-side privacy manager.

  12. 12.

    https://dev.fitbit.com/build/reference/web-api/oauth2/.

  13. 13.

    https://community.fitbit.com/t5/Flex-2/How-do-I-revoke-access/td-p/2701359.

  14. 14.

    We restricted our study to Fitbit users rather than users of any fitness trackers to make sure that our sample had a more homogeneous existing experience with fitness permission setting interfaces.

  15. 15.

    The prototype can be used at http://pdm-aids.dibris.unige.it/simulation.php.

  16. 16.

    http://pdm-aids.dibris.unige.it/questionnaire.php.

  17. 17.

    https://www.cs.waikato.ac.nz/ml/weka/.

  18. 18.

    We obtain similar results using other clustering algorithms, such as hierarchical clustering.

  19. 19.

    The generally accepted thresholds for odds ratios are 1.68 for a small effect size, 3.47 for a medium effect size, and 6.71 for a large effect size.

  20. 20.

    The UI design can be found in http://pdm-aids.dibris.unige.it/interface/.

  21. 21.

    https://github.com/OdnanOriginal/PDM

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Table 4 Study Questionnaire
Table 5 Table of accuracies

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Sanchez, O.R., Torre, I., He, Y. et al. A recommendation approach for user privacy preferences in the fitness domain. User Model User-Adap Inter 30, 513–565 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11257-019-09246-3

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Keywords

  • Privacy preferences
  • Fitness trackers
  • Profiling
  • Privacy-setting recommendations
  • Privacy management
  • Wearable IoT devices