Skip to main content
Log in

Exploring Issues of User Model Transparency and Proactive Behaviour in an Office Environment Control System

  • Published:
User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

It is important that systems that exhibit proactive behaviour do so in a way that does not surprise or frustrate the user. Consequently, it is desirable for such systems to be both personalised and designed in such a way as to enable the user to scrutinise her user model (part of which should hold the rules describing the behaviour of the system). This article describes on-going work to investigate the design of a prototype system that can learn a given user’s behaviour in an office environment in order to use the inferred rules to populate a user model and support appropriate proactive behaviour (e.g. turning on the user’s fan under appropriate conditions). We explore the tension between user control and proactive services and consider issues related to the design of appropriate transparency with a view to supporting user comprehensibility of system behaviour. To this end, our system enables the user to scrutinise and possibly over-ride the ‘IF-THEN’ rules held in her user model. The system infers these rules from the context history (effectively a data set generated using a variety of sensors) associated with the user by using a fuzzy-decision-tree-based algorithm that can provide a confidence level for each rule in the user model. The evolution of the system has been guided by feedback from a number of real-life users in a university department. A questionnaire study has yielded supplementary results concerning the extent to which the approach taken meets users’ expectations and requirements.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  1. G.D. Abowd E.D. Mynatt (2000) ArticleTitleCharting past, present and future research in ubiquitous computing ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, Special Issue on HCI in the New Millenium 7 IssueID1 29–58

    Google Scholar 

  2. E. Arroyo T. Selker A. Stouffs (2002) Interruptions as multimodal outputs: Which are the less disruptive? Pittsburgh Pennsylvania 479–482

    Google Scholar 

  3. L. Barkhuus A.K. Dey (2003) Is context-aware computing taking control away from the user? Three levels of interactivity examined Springer-Verlag Seattle, USA 159–166

    Google Scholar 

  4. B. Brumitt B. Meyers J. Krumm A. Kern S. Shafer (2000) EasyLiving: technologies for intelligent environments Springer-Verlag Bristol, UK 12–29

    Google Scholar 

  5. H.E. Byun K. Cheverst (2003) Supporting proactive “Intelligent” behaviour: the problem of uncertainty Johnstown PA 17–25

    Google Scholar 

  6. H.E. Byun K. Cheverst (2004) ArticleTitleUtilising context history to provide dynamic adaptations Journal of Applied Artificial Intelligence 18 IssueID6 533–548 Occurrence Handle10.1080/08839510490462894

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. K. Cheverst N. Davies K. Mitchell C. Efstratiou (2001) ArticleTitleUsing context as a crystal ball: rewards and pitfalls Personal Technologies 3 IssueID5 8–11

    Google Scholar 

  8. K. Cheverst A. Dix D. Fitton M. Rouncefield (2003) “Out To Lunch”: exploring the sharing of personal context through office door displays IEEE Computer Society Press Brisbane 74–83

    Google Scholar 

  9. M. Coen (1998) Design principles for intelligent environments AAAI Press Madison WI 37–443

    Google Scholar 

  10. S. Cohen (1980) ArticleTitleAfter-effects of stress on human performance and social behavior: A review of research and theory Psychological Bulletin 88 82–108 Occurrence Handle10.1037//0033-2909.88.1.82 Occurrence Handle7403392

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. A.K. Dey G.D. Abowd (2000) The context toolkit: aiding the development of context-enabled applications. Proceedings of the Workshop on Software Engineering for Wearable and Pervasive Computing Limerick Ireland

    Google Scholar 

  12. M. Guetova S. Holldobler H. Storr (2002) Incremental fuzzy decision trees Aachen Germany 67–81

    Google Scholar 

  13. L.E. Holmquist F. Mattern B. Schiele P. Alahuhta M. Beigl H.W. Gellersen (2001) Smart-its friends: a technique for users to easily establish connections between smart artefacts Atlanta USA 116–122

    Google Scholar 

  14. E. Horvitz (1999) Principles of mixed-initiative user interfaces ACM Press New York 159–166

    Google Scholar 

  15. Intille, S.S.: 2002, Designing a home of the future. IEEE Pervasive Computing April–June, 80–86.

  16. S.S. Intille K. Larson (2003) Designing and evaluating supportive technology for homes IEEE Press Kobe, Japan

    Google Scholar 

  17. A. Jameson S. Baldes M. Bauer A. Kroner (2004) Resolving the tension between invisibility and transparency Gallipoli Italy 29–33

    Google Scholar 

  18. Janikow, C.Z.: 1996, Exemplar learning in fuzzy decision trees. Proceedings of the Conference on Fuzzy Systems (FUZZIEEE ’96). New Orleans, pp. 1500–1505.

  19. J. Karlgren K. Hook A. Lanz J. Palme D. Pargman (1994) The glass box user model for information filtering Hyannis MA

    Google Scholar 

  20. J. Kay R.J. Kummerfeld P. Lauder (2003) Managing private user models and shared personas Johnstown PA 1–11

    Google Scholar 

  21. J. Mantyjarvi T. Seppanen (2002) Adapting applications in mobile terminals using fuzzy context information Springer-Verlag Pisa Italy 95–107

    Google Scholar 

  22. D.C. McFarlane K.A. Latorella (2002) ArticleTitleThe scope and importance of human interruption in human-computer interaction design Human-Computer Interaction 17 IssueID1 1–61 Occurrence Handle10.1207/S15327051HCI1701_1

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. T.M. Mitchell R. Caruana D. Freitag J. McDermott D. Zabowski (1994) ArticleTitleExperience with a learning personal assistant Communications of the ACM 37 IssueID7 80–91 Occurrence Handle10.1145/176789.176798

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. M.C. Mozer D. Miller (1998) Parsing the stream of time: the value of event-based segmentation in a complex real-world control problem C. L. Giles M. Gori (Eds) Adaptive Processing of Temporal Information Springer Berlin 370–388

    Google Scholar 

  25. Pohl. W.: 1996, Learning about the user – user modeling and machine learning. Proceedings of Machine Learning Meets Human-Computer Interaction (ICML’96 Workshop). pp. 29–40.

  26. J. Rodin E. Langer (1977) ArticleTitleLong-term effects of a control-relevant intervention with the institutionalized aged Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 35 IssueID12 897–902 Occurrence Handle10.1037//0022-3514.35.12.897 Occurrence Handle592095

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  27. J.S. Rubinstein D.E. Meyer J.E. Evans (2001) ArticleTitleExecutive control of cognitive processes in task switching Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 27 IssueID4 763–796 Occurrence Handle10.1037/0096-1523.27.4.763

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. A. Salovaara A. Oulasvirta (2004) Six modes of proactive resource management: a user-centric typology for proactive behaviors ACM Press Tampere, Finland 57–60

    Google Scholar 

  29. S.C.K. Shiu C.H. Sun X.Z. Wang D.S. Yeung (2000) Maintaining case-based reasoning system using fuzzy decision trees Springer Trento, Italy 296

    Google Scholar 

  30. C. Speier J.S. Valacich I. Vessey (1997) The effects of task interruption and information presentation on individual decision making Association for Computing Machinery New York 21–36

    Google Scholar 

  31. M. Weiser (1991) ArticleTitleThe computer for the 21st century Scientific American 265 IssueID3 94–104

    Google Scholar 

  32. X10 Limited: 2004, What is X10? http://www.smarthome.com/about_x10.html

  33. J. Zeidler M. Schlosser (1996) Continuous-valued attributes in fuzzy decision trees Granada Spain 395–400

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Keith Cheverst.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Cheverst, K., Byun, H.E., Fitton, D. et al. Exploring Issues of User Model Transparency and Proactive Behaviour in an Office Environment Control System. User Model User-Adap Inter 15, 235–273 (2005). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11257-005-1269-8

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11257-005-1269-8

Keywords

Navigation