Amidst the rapid expansion of education reform aimed at promoting educational equity, noticeably absent has been a focus on school counseling—a profession uniquely positioned to support students’ postsecondary, social emotional, and academic development. Despite research continually affirming the positive influence of counselors on students, uneven access to counseling support across US public schools, especially in urban areas, remains a reality today. Notably, high student-to-counselor ratios in schools that educate a large proportion of students of color and those living in low-income communities suggest that those students most in need of access to counseling support are the least likely to receive it. In this essay, we outline school counselors’ unique roles in supporting minoritized youth and draw on Bronfenbrenner’s (The ecology of human development: experiments in nature and design, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1979) ecological systems theory to consider the nested systems in which counselors work—systems which, we argue, place constraints on school counseling equity. This systems-level framing moves away from casting the limitations of our current student support model as an individual-level, personnel issue and instead conceptualizes it as an organizational one that must be remedied to ensure all students have equal access to critical counseling support.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
We use the term “minoritized” to refer to Black, Latinx, and Native youth as well as those with other marginalized identities because it reflects how individuals’ minority status is ascribed by those in the majority (Smith, 2016).
These sentiments promulgated a number of recent educator strikes in California, Illinois, West Virginia, and Oklahoma that called for the hiring of more school support staff (e.g., Eidelson, 2018).
Akos, P., & Ellis, C. M. (2008). Racial identity development in middle school: A case for school counselor individual and systemic intervention. Journal of Counseling and Development, 86(1), 26–33. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6678.2008.tb00622.x
American School Counselor Association. (2015). The school counselor and cultural diversity. https://asca-prod.azurewebsites.net/asca/media/asca/PositionStatements/PS_CulturalDiversity.pdf
American School Counselor Association. (2019a). ASCA school counselor professional standards and competencies. https://www.schoolcounselor.org/getmedia/a8d59c2c-51de-4ec3-a565-a3235f3b93c3/SC-Competencies.pdf
American School Counselor Association. (2019b). ASCA standards for school counselor preparation programs (ASCA CAEP SPA). https://www.schoolcounselor.org/getmedia/573d7c2c-1622-4d25-a5ac-ac74d2e614ca/ASCA-Standards-for-School-Counselor-Preparation-Programs.pdf
American School Counselor Association. (2019c). Measuring the impact of school counselor ratios on student outcomes. https://www.schoolcounselor.org/getmedia/5157ef82-d2e8-4b4d-8659-a957f14b7875/Ratios-Student-Outcomes-Research-Report.pdf
American School Counselor Association. (2019d). The ASCA national model: A framework for school counseling programs (4th ed.).
American School Counselor Association. (2020). Student-to-school-counselor ratio 2018–2019. https://www.schoolcounselor.org/getmedia/c0351f10-45d1-4812-9c88-85b071628bb4/Ratios18-19.pdf
American School Counselor Association. (2021). ASCA research report: State of the profession 2020. https://www.schoolcounselor.org/getmedia/bb23299b678d-4bce-8863-cfcb55f7df87/2020-State-of-theProfession.pdf
American School Counselor Association. (n.d.a.). Position statements. https://www.schoolcounselor.org/Standards-Positions/Position-Statements/ASCA-Position-Statements/
American School Counselor Association. (n.d.b.). State school counseling mandates and legislation. https://www.schoolcounselor.org/About-School-Counseling/State-Requirements-Programs/State-School-Counseling-Mandates-Legislation
Arriero, E., & Griffin, D. (2018). ¡Adelante! A community asset mapping approach to increase college and career readiness for rural Latinx high school students. Professional School Counseling, 22(1), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1177/2156759X18800279
Atkins, R., & Oglesby, A. (2019). Interrupting racism: Equity and social justice in school counseling. New York: Routledge.
Baker, E., Zyromski, B., & Granello, D. H. (2021). School or guidance counselor: How the title influences public perception. Professional School Counseling, 25(1), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1177/2156759X20981034
Belasco, A. S. (2013). Creating college opportunity: School counselors and their influence on postsecondary enrollment. Research in Higher Education, 54(7), 781–804. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11162-013-9297-4
Benigno, S. (2017). Counselor perceptions: Let us do our job! Journal of Education and Learning, 6(4), 175–180. https://doi.org/10.5539/jel.v6n4p175
Black Lives Matter at School. (n.d.). Black Lives Matter at School week of action starter kit. https://www.blacklivesmatteratschool.com/starter-kit.html
Blake, M. K. (2020). Other duties as assigned: The ambiguous role of the high school counselor. Sociology of Education, 93(4), 315–330. https://doi.org/10.1177/0038040720932563
Bridgeland, J., & Bruce, M. (2011). 2011 National survey of school counselors: Counseling at a crossroads. College Board Advocacy and Policy Center. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED527749.pdf
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development: Experiments in nature and design. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Bronfenbrenner, U., & Morris, P. A. (1998). The ecology of development of development processes. In W. Damon & R. M. Lerner (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Theoretical models of human development (Vol. 2, pp. 993–1027). Hoboken: Wiley.
Bruce, M., & Bridgeland, J. (2012). 2012 National Survey of School Counselors True North: Charting the Course to College and Career Readiness. College Board Advocacy and Policy Center. https://secure-media.collegeboard.org/digitalServices/pdf/nosca/true-north.pdf
Bryan, J., Holcomb-McCoy, C., Moore-Thomas, C., & Day-Vines, N. L. (2009). Who sees the school counselor for college information? A National study. Professional School Counseling, 12(4), 280–291. https://doi.org/10.1177/2156759X0901200401
Carey, J., & Dimmitt, C. (2012). School counseling and student outcomes: Summary of six statewide studies. Professional School Counseling, 16(2), 146–153. https://doi.org/10.1177/2156759X0001600204
Carey, J. C., & Martin, I. (2017). Policy research on school-based counseling in the United States: Establishing a policy research agenda. In: J. Carey, B. Harris, S. Lee, & O. Aluede (Eds.) International handbook for policy research on school-based counseling, pp. 399–415. Springer, Cham. doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-58179-8_26
Carey, J., Harrington, K., Martin, I., & Stevenson, D. (2012). A statewide evaluation of the outcomes of the implementation of ASCA national model school counseling programs in Utah high schools. Professional School Counseling, 16(2), 89–99. https://doi.org/10.1177/2156759X0001600203
Carrell, S. E., & Carrell, S. A. (2006). Do lower student to counselor ratios reduce school disciplinary problems? Contributions to Economic Analysis and Policy, 5(1), 1–24. https://doi.org/10.2202/1538-0645.1463
Carrell, S. E., & Hoekstra, M. (2014). Are school counselors an effective education input? Economic Letters. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econlet.2014.07.020
Chandler, J. W., Burnham, J. J., Riechel, M. E. K., Dahir, C. A., Stone, C. B., Oliver, D. F., Davis, A.P., & Bledsoe, K. G. (2018). Assessing the counseling and non-counseling roles of school counselors. Journal of School Counseling, 16(7). http://www.jsc.montana.edu/articles/v16n7.pdf
Cholewa, B., Burkhardt, C. K., & Hull, M. F. (2015). Are school counselors impacting underrepresented students’ thinking about postsecondary education? A nationally representative study. Professional School Counseling, 19(1), 1096–2409. https://doi.org/10.5330/1096-2409-19.1.144
Cholewa, B., Goodman-Scott, E., Warren, J. M., & Hull, M. F. (2020). School counselor consultation preparation: A national study. Counselor Education and Supervision, 59(1), 46–58. https://doi.org/10.1002/ceas.12165
Cigrand, D. L., Havlik, S. G., Malott, K. M., & Jones, S. G. (2015). School counselors united in professional advocacy: A systems model. Journal of School Counseling, 13(8). https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1066331.pdf
Clinedinst, M., Koranteng, A., & Nicola, T. (2015). State of college admission. National Association for College Admission Counseling. https://www.nacacnet.org/globalassets/documents/publications/research/2015soca.pdf
Cole, R.F., & Grothaus, T. (2014). A phenomenological study of urban school counselors’ perceptions of low-income families. Journal of School Counseling, 12(5). https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1034768.pdf
Conyne, R. K., & Cook, E. P. (2004). Understanding persons within environments: An introduction to ecological counseling. In R. K. Conyne & E. P. Cook (Eds.), Ecological counseling: An innovative approach to conceptualizing person–environment interaction (pp. 3–36). American Counseling Association.
Cook, A. L., Hayden, L. A., Tyrrell, R., & McCann, A. G. (2018). “Doing everything on my own”: Examining African American, Latina/o, and biracial students’ experiences with school counselors in promoting academic and college readiness. Urban Education. https://doi.org/10.1177/0042085918772624
Corwin, Z. B., Venegas, K. M., Oliverez, P. M., & Colyar, J. E. (2004). School counsel: How appropriate guidance affects educational equity. Urban Education, 39(4), 442–457. https://doi.org/10.1177/0042085904265107
Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (n.d.). 2016 CACREP standards. https://www.cacrep.org/for-programs/2016-cacrep-standards/
Dahir, C., & Stone, C. (2007). School counseling at the crossroads of change (ACAPCD-05). American Counseling Association.
Education Resource Strategies. (2014). Transforming school funding: A guide to implementing student-based budgeting (SBB).
Eidelson, J. (2018). Teacher strikes are spreading across America with no end in sight. Bloomberg. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2018-04-02/teacher-strikes-are-spreading-across-america
Foxx, S. P., Baker, S. B., & Gerler, E. R. (2017). School counseling in the 21st century. Routledge.
Foxx, S. P., Saunders, R., & Lewis, C. W. (2020). Race, gender, class and achievement: A culturally responsive approach to urban school counseling. Professional School Counseling, 23(1), 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1177/2156759x19899184
Francis, D. V., de Oliveira, A. C. M., & Dimmitt, C. (2019). Do school counselors exhibit bias in recommending students for advanced coursework? The BE Journal of Economic Analysis and Policy, 19(4), 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1515/bejeap-2018-0189
Fye, H. J., Miller, L. G., & Rainey, J. S. (2017). Predicting school counselors’ supports and challenges when implementing the ASCA National Model. Professional School Counseling, 21, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1177/2156759X18777671
Gagnon, D., & Mattingly, M. J. (2016). Most US school districts have low access to school counselors: Poor, diverse, and city school districts exhibit particularly high student-to-counselor ratios. (National Issue Brief No. 106). The Carsey School of Public Policy, University of New Hampshire. https://scholars.unh.edu/carsey/286/
Gast, M. J. (2016). “You’re supposed to help me”: The perils of mass counseling norms for working-class black students. Urban Education. https://doi.org/10.1177/0042085916652178
Ghandour, R. M., Sherman, L. J., Vladutiu, C. J., Ali, M. M., Lynch, S. E., Bitsko, R. H., & Blumberg, S. J. (2019). Prevalence and treatment of depression, anxiety, and conduct problems in US children. The Journal of Pediatrics, 206, 256–267. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2018.09.021
Gilfillan, B. H. (2017). School counselors and college readiness counseling. Professional School Counseling, 21(1), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1177/2156759X18784297
Goodman-Scott, E. (2015). School counselors’ perceptions of their academic preparedness and job activities. Counselor Education and Supervision, 54(1), 57–67. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6978.2015.00070.x
Goodman-Scott, E., Betters-Bubon, J., Olsen, J., & Donohue, P. (2020). Making MTSS work (1st edn). American School Counselor Association.
Goodman-Scott, E., Sink, C. A., Cholewa, B. E., & Burgess, M. (2018). An ecological view of school counselor ratios and student academic outcomes: A national investigation. Journal of Counseling and Development, 96(4), 388–398. https://doi.org/10.1002/jcad.12221
Greenham, J. C., Harris, G. E., Hollett, K. B., & Harris, N. (2019). Predictors of turnover intention in school guidance counsellors. British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 47(6), 727–743. https://doi.org/10.1080/03069885.2019.1644613
Greer, D. D., & Webb, T. E. (2020). School counselors and African American students: Counseling within the Black experience. Urban Education Research and Policy Annuals, 7, 1.
Grey, L. (2019). The impact of school-based mentoring on the academic achievement gap. Professional School Counseling, 23(1), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1177/2156759X19890258
Griffith, C., Mariani, M., McMahon, H. G., Zyromski, B., & Greenspan, S. B. (2019). School counseling intervention research: A 10-year content analysis of ASCA-and ACA-affiliated journals. Professional School Counseling, 23(1), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1177/2156759X19878700
Gysbers, N.C. (2010). School counseling principles: Remembering the past, shaping the future. American School Counselor Association.
Gysbers, N. C., & Henderson, P. (2012). Developing and managing your school guidance and counseling program (5th ed.). American Counseling Association.
Havlik, S., Ciarletta, M., & Crawford, E. (2019). “If we don’t define our roles, someone else will”: Professional advocacy in school counseling. Professional School Counseling, 22(1), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1177/2156759X19848331
Hill, L. D. (2012). Environmental threats to college counseling strategies in urban high schools: Implications for student preparation for college transitions. Urban Review, 44, 36–59. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11256-011-0181-2
Hilts, D., Kratsa, K., Joseph, M., Kolbert, J. B., Crothers, L. M., & Nice, M. L. (2019). School counselors’ perceptions of barriers to implementing a RAMP-designated school counseling program. Professional School Counseling, 23(1), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1177/2156759X19882646
Holcomb-McCoy, C. (2007). School counseling to close the achievement gap: A social justice framework for success. Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press.
Holcomb-McCoy, C., & Johnston, G. (2008). A content analysis of pre-service school counselors’ evaluations of an urban practicum experience. Journal of School Counseling, 6, 1–26.
Holman, L. F., Nelson, J., & Watts, R. (2019). Organizational variables contributing to school counselor burnout: An opportunity for leadership, advocacy, collaboration, and systemic change. Professional Counselor, 9(2), 126–141. https://doi.org/10.15241/lfh.9.2.126
Huerta, A. H., McDonough, P. M., & Allen, W. R. (2018). “You can go to college”: Employing a developmental perspective to examine how young men of color construct a college-going identity. Urban Review, 50, 713–734. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11256-018-0466-9
Hurwitz, M., & Howell, J. (2014). Estimating causal impacts of school counselors with regression discontinuity designs. Journal of Counseling and Development, 92(3), 316–327. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6676.2014.00159.x
Hussar, B., Xhang, J., Hein, S., Wang, K., Roberts, A., Cui, J., Smith, M., Bullock Mann, F., Barmer, A., & Dilig, R. (2020). The Condition of Education 2020. US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics.
Irons, M.E. (2019). ‘My guidance counselor didn’t allow this’: How cool counselors’ roles have evolved. Boston Globe. https://www.bostonglobe.com/metro/2019/09/18/guidance-counselor-didn-any-this/iB7dvOJVigJVVJ2UyaanQK/story.html
Jacobson, L. (2019). With growing calls for more mental health services, states tackle school counselor caseloads. K-12 Dive. https://www.k12dive.com/news/with-growing-calls-for-more-mental-health-services-states-tackle-school-co/556169/
Johnson, J., Rochkind, J., Ott, A., & DuPont, S. (2010). Can I get a little advice here? Public Agenda. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED508672.pdf
Kearney, C., Akos, P., Domina, T., & Young Z. (2020). Student-to-school counselor ratios: A meta-analytic review of the evidence (Working Paper).
Lambie, G. W., Stickl Haugen, J., Borland, J. R., & Campbell, L. O. (2019). Who took “counseling” out of the role of professional school counselors in the United States? Journal of School-Based Counseling Policy and Evaluation, 1(3), 51–61. https://doi.org/10.25774/7kjb-bt85
Lapan, R. T., Whitcomb, S. A., & Aleman, N. M. (2012). Connecticut professional school counselors: College and career counseling services and smaller ratios benefit students. Professional School Counseling, 16(2), 117–124. https://doi.org/10.1177/2156759X0001600206
Levy, I. P. (2019). Hip-hop and spoken word therapy in urban school counseling. Professional School Counseling, 22(1b), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1177/2156759X19834436
Lewin, K. (1951). Field theory in social science: Selected theoretical papers. Harper.
Lewis, T., Jones, K. D., Militello, M., & Meisenhelder, R. (2020). A clear and consistent focus on students: Principals’ perceptions of the role of school counselors. Journal of School Leadership. https://doi.org/10.1177/1052684620972067
Lieberman, A. (2004). Confusion regarding school counselor functions: School leadership impacts role clarity. Education, 124(3), 552–559.
Lowery, K., Quick, M., Boyland, L., Geesa, R. L., & Mayes, R. D. (2018). "It wasn't mentioned and should have been": Principals' preparation to support comprehensive school counseling. Journal of Organizational and Educational Leadership, 3(2). https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1180120.pdf
Malone, H. J. (2013). The search stage: When, where, and what information do urban public high school students gather about college. Journal of School Counseling, 11, 13.
Malott, K. M., Havlik, S., Gosai, S., & Diaz Davila, J. (2020). A group intervention for prospective first-generation college students: Application with an urban, African American population. Professional School Counseling, 24(1), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1177/2156759X20957297
Malott, K. M., Paone, T. R., Humphreys, K., & Martinez, T. (2010). Use of group counseling to address ethnic identity development: Application with adolescents of Mexican descent. Professional School Counseling, 13(4), 257–267. https://doi.org/10.1177/2156759X1001300502
Martinez, M., Brekken, K., & Bernick, E. L. (2020). Who influences urban students’ college aspirations? Evidence From the fifth largest school district in the United States. Professional School Counseling, 23(1), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1177/2156759X209070699
McDonough, P. (1997). Choosing colleges: How social class and schools structure opportunity. New York: State University of New York Press.
McFarland, J., Hussar, B., Zhang, J., Wang, X., Wang, K., Hein, S., Diliberti, M., Cataldi, E.F., Mann, F.B., & Barmer, A. (2019). The Condition of Education 2019 (NCES 2019–144). National Center for Education Statistics. https://nces.ed.gov/pubs2019/2019144.pdf
McMahon, H. G., Mason, E. C. M., Daluga-Guenther, N., & Ruiz, A. (2014). An ecological model of professional school counseling. Journal of Counseling and Development, 92(4), 459–471. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6676.2014.00172.x
Monteiro-Leitner, J., Asner-Self, K. K., Milde, C., Leitner, D. W., & Skelton, D. (2006). The role of the rural school counselor: Counselor, counselor-in-training, and principal perceptions. Professional School Counseling, 9(3), 248–251. https://doi.org/10.1177/2156759X0500900307
Mulhern, C. (2020). Beyond teachers: Estimating individual guidance counselors’ effects on educational attainment (Working Paper). http://papers.cmulhern.com/Counselors_Mulhern.pdf
Mullen, P. R., Chase, N., Backer, A., & Niles, J. (2021). School counselor burnout, job stress, and job satisfaction by student caseload. NASSP Bulletin. https://doi.org/10.1177/0192636521999828
National Center for Education Statistics. (2019). Common Core of Data (CCD) State Nonfiscal Survey Public Elementary/Secondary Education Survey: 2018–19 (Version 1a) [Data set and codebook] US Department of Education.
Novakovic, A., Patrikakou, E. N., & Ockerman, M. S. (2021). School counselor perceptions of preparation and importance of college and career readiness counseling. Professional School Counseling. https://doi.org/10.1177/2156759X21998391
Ohrt, J., Lambie, G., & Ieva, K. (2009). Supporting Latino and African-American students in Advanced Placement courses: A school counseling program’s approach. Professional School Counseling, 13(1), 59–63. https://doi.org/10.1177/2156759X0901300104
Orfield, G. (2013). Housing segregation produces unequal schools: Causes and solutions. In P. L. Carter & K. G. Welner (Eds.), Closing the opportunity gap: What American must do to give every child an even change (pp. 40–60). Oxford University Press.
Perna, L. W. (2015). Improving college access and completion for low-income and first-generation students: The role of college access and success programs. http://repository.upenn.edu/gse_pubs/301
Pérusse, R., Poynton, T.A., Parzych, J.L., & Goodnough, G.E. (2015). Changes overtime in masters level counselor education programs. The Journal of Counseling Preparation and Supervision, 7(3). https://repository.wcsu.edu/jcps/vol7/iss3/8/
Ratts, M., Dekruyf, L., & Chen-Hayes, S. (2007). The ACA advocacy competencies: A social justice advocacy framework for professional school counselors. Professional School Counseling, 11(2), 90–97. https://doi.org/10.1177/2156759X0701100203
Ratts, M. J., & Greenleaf, A. T. (2018). Counselor–advocate–scholar model: Changing the dominant discourse in counseling. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 46(2), 78–96. https://doi.org/10.1002/jmcd.12094
Reckhow, S. (2013). Follow the money: How foundation dollars change public school politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Savitz-Romer, M. (2012). The gap between influence and efficay: College readiness training, urban school counselors, and the promotion of equity. Counselor Education and Supervision, 51(2), 98–111. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6978.2012.00007.x
Savitz-Romer, M. (2019). Fulfilling the promise: Reimagining school counseling to advance student success. Harvard Education Press.
Savitz-Romer, M., & Bouffard, S.M. (2012). Ready, willing and able: A developmental approach to college access and success. Harvard Education Press.
Shamsuddin, S. (2016). Taken out of context: Piecing together college guidance information in urban high schools. Urban Review, 48, 101–122. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11256-015-0347-4
Shi, Q., & Brown, M. (2020). School counselors’ impact on school-level academic outcomes: Caseload and use of time. Professional School Counseling, 23(1), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1177/2156759X20904489
Silva-Laya, M., Dangelo, N., García, E., Zúñiga, L., & Fernández, T. (2020). Urban poverty and education A systematic literature review. Educational Research Review, 29, 100280. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.edurev.2019.05.002
Singh, A. A., Appling, B., & Trepal, H. (2020). Using the multicultural and social justice counseling competencies to decolonize counseling practice: The important roles of theory, power, and action. Journal of Counseling and Development, 98(3), 261–271. https://doi.org/10.1002/jcad.12321
Sink, C. (2019). Tier 1: Creating strong universal systems of support and facilitating systemic change. In E. Goodman-Scott, J. Betters-Bubon, & P. Donohue (Eds.), The school counselor’s guide to multi-tiered systems of support (pp. 62–98). New York: Routledge.
Smith, I.E. (2016). Minority vs. minoritized: Why the noun just doesn’t cut it. Odyssey. https://www.theodysseyonline.com/minority-vs-minoritize
Smith, L., Garnett, B., Herbert, A., Grudev, N., Vogel, J., Keefner, W., Barnett, A., & Baker, T. (2018). The hand of professional school counseling meets the glove of restorative practices: A call to the profession. Professional School Counseling, 21(1), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1177/2156759X18761899
Storlie, C. A. (2016). Exploring school counselor advocacy in the career development of undocumented Latino youth. Journal for Social Action in Counseling and Psychology, 8(1), 70–88. https://doi.org/10.33043/JSACP.8.1.70-88
Strear, M., Duffy, H., & Aste, M. (2019). Building a system for postsecondary success: The pivotal role of school counselors. College and Career Readiness and Success Center at American Institutes for Research. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED597826.pdf
Swail, W., & Perna, L. W. (2002). Pre-college outreach programs: A national perspective. In W. G. Tierney & L. S. Hagedorn (Eds.), Increasing access to college: Extending possibilities for all students (pp. 15–34). State University of New York Press.
US Department of Education. Office for Civil Rights. (2016). A first look: Key data highlights on equity and opportunity gaps in our nation’s public schools. US Department of Education, Office for Civil Rights. https://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ocr/docs/2013-14-first-look.pdf
Velez, E. D. (2016). How can high school counseling shape students' postsecondary attendance? Exploring the relationship between the high school counseling context and Students’ Subsequent postsecondary enrollment. National Association for College Admission Counseling. https://www.nacacnet.org/globalassets/documents/publications/research/hsls-phase-iii.pdf
Warren, J. M., Jones, S. J., & Unger, D. L. (2019). Strengthening professional school counseling: A call to action. Professional Issues in Counseling, 6(1), 61–76.
Welton, A. D., & Martinez, M. A. (2014). Coloring the college pathway: A more culturally responsive approach to college readiness and access for students of color in secondary schools. Urban Review, 46, 197–223. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11256-013-0252-7
Whiston, S. C., & Quinby, R. F. (2009). Review of school counseling outcome research. Psychology in the Schools, 46(3), 267–272. https://doi.org/10.1002/pits.20372
Whiston, S. C., Tai, W. L., Rahardja, D., & Eder, K. (2011). School counseling outcome: A meta-analytic examination of interventions. Journal of Counseling and Development, 89(1), 37–55. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6678.2011.tb00059.x
Whitaker, A., Torres-Guillén, S., Morton, M., Jordan, H., Coyle, S., Mann, A., & Sun, W. (2019). Cops and no counselors: How the lack of school mental health staff is harming students. American Civil Liberties Union. https://www.aclu.org/sites/default/files/field_document/030419-acluschooldisciplinereport.pdf
Wilczenski, F. L., Schumacher, R. A., & Cook, A. L. (2010). School counseling principles: Mentoring and supervising. American School Counselor Association.
Woods, C. S., & Domina, T. (2014). The school counselor caseload and the high school-to-college pipeline. Teachers College Record, 116(10), 1–30.
Wyatt, S. (2009). The brotherhood: Empowering adolescent African-American males toward excellence. Professional School Counseling, 12(6), 463–470. https://doi.org/10.1177/2156759X0901200615
Young, A., & Kaffenberger, C. (2015). School counseling professional development: Assessing the use of data to inform school counseling services. Professional School Counseling, 19(1), 1096–2409. https://doi.org/10.5330/1096-2409-19.1.46
Zalaquett, C.P., & Chatters, S. (2012). Middle school principals' perceptions of middle school counselors' roles and functions. American Secondary Education, 40(2), 89–103. https://www.jstor.org/stable/43694132?seq=1
Zyromski, B., Hudson, T. D., Baker, E., & Granello, D. H. (2018). Guidance counselors or school counselors: How the name of the profession influences perceptions of competence. Professional School Counseling, 22(1), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1177/2156759X19855654
Conflict of interest
On behalf of all the authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Rights and permissions
About this article
Cite this article
Savitz-Romer, M., Nicola, T.P. An Ecological Examination of School Counseling Equity. Urban Rev 54, 207–232 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11256-021-00618-x
- School counseling
- Educational policy
- Social justice
- Ecological systems
- Leadership and systems-level change