Figured Worlds and American Dreams: An Exploration of Agency and Identity Among Latinx Undocumented Students

Abstract

Undocumented students find themselves on continuously shifting ground, calibrating each decision they make in accordance with or as a strategic reaction to the existing political climate. Specifically, some undocumented students find themselves in an ongoing internal battle to fashion an identity that both counters the pervasive stereotypes of undocumented people through a process of hyperdocumentation (Chang in Harv Educ Rev 81(3):508–520, 2011), while simultaneously bearing the weight of fierce anti-immigrant sentiment. In this article, we ask the following questions: How do Latinx undocumented students navigate educational spaces? In what ways do their legal statuses impact the production of their identities? How do they exert agency within the parameters of their undocumented status? In answering these questions, we explore the ways in which some undocumented students figure—or take agency in shaping meaning of—their worlds, find identity in their education, and leverage community cultural wealth (Yosso in Race Ethn Educ 8(1):69–91, 2005) as a source of critical hope and resilience in their quest to achieve the ever-nebulous American Dream.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Notes

  1. 1.

    We intentionally leverage the term “Latinx” as a gender-neutral demographic category that includes any person of Latin American origin or descent. As Baez notes, “La flexión de género en “x” apunta a contrastar críticamente el protocolo hegemónico de la construcción masculina del sujeto universal. No es la mera inclusión -políticamente correcta- de “ellos y ellas”, sino una crítica al sentido distribucionista y prescriptivo de lo masculino y lo femenino en el uso hegemónico y habitual de la gramática castellana para referirse a lxs sujetxs. La incomodidad que genera la "x" en la lectura y la pronunciación puede parangonarse con la incomodidad que sienten aquellxs que no se sienten -parcial o totalmente- representadxs/interpeladxs ni por el ‘ellos’ ni por el ‘ellas’” (p. 2). English translation: The gender bending in “x” aims to critically contrast the hegemonic protocol in the male construction of the universal subject. It is not the mere inclusion—politically correct—of they (him) (male) and they (her) (female) but a critique of the distributive and prescriptive sense of the male and the female in the hegemonic and habitual use of the Spanish Grammar in reference to the subjects. The uncomfortable feeling that the “x” creates in the reading and the pronunciation can be compared with the uncomfortable feeling of those who do not feel–partially or totally—represented neither like they (male) or they (female).

References

  1. Abes, E. S. (2009). Theoretical borderlands: Using multiple theoretical perspectives to challenge inequitable power structures in student development theory. Journal of College Student Leadership Development, 50(2), 141–156.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Abrego, L. (2006). ‘I can’t go to college because I don’t have papers’: Incorporation patterns of Latino undocumented youth. Latino Studies, 4(3), 212–231.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Abrego, L. (2008). Legitimacy, social identity, and the mobilization of law: The effects of Assembly Bill 540 on undocumented students in California. Law & Social Inquiry, 33(3), 709–734.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Abrego, L. (2011). Legal consciousness of undocumented Latinos: Fear and stigma as barriers to claims making for first and 1.5 generation immigrants. Law & Society Review, 45(2), 337–369.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Abrego, L. (2014). Sacrificing families: Navigating laws, labor, and love across borders. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Abrego, L. J., & Gonzales, R. G. (2010). Blocked paths, uncertain futures: The postsecondary education and labor market prospects of undocumented Latino youth. Journal of Education of Students Placed at Risk, 15(1), 144–157.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Adams, J. T. (1931). The epic of America. Boston, MA: Little, Brown, & Company.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Anzaldúa, G. (1987). Borderlands: La frontera. Berkeley, CA: Aunt Lute Books.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Arriaga, B. (2012). ‘67 sueños’: Inspiring a movement for undocumented voices to be heard. Journal of the Association of Mexican American Educators, 6(1), 71–76.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Bagley, C., & Castro-Salazar, R. (2012). Critical arts-based research in education: Performing undocumented historias. British Educational Research Journal, 38(2), 239–260.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Bernal, D. D. (1998). Using a Chicana feminist epistemology in educational research. Harvard Educational Review, 68(4), 555–583.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Bernal, D. D. (2002). Critical race theory, Latino critical theory, and critical raced-gendered epistemologies: Recognizing students of color as holders and creators of knowledge. Qualitative Inquiry, 8(1), 105–126.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Bourdieu, P. (1986). The forms of capital. In J. G. Richardson (Ed.), Handbook of theory and research for the sociology of education (pp. 241–258). New York, NY: Greenwood.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Bozick, R., & Miller, T. (2014). In-state college tuition policies for undocumented immigrants: Implications for high school enrollment among non-citizen Mexican youth. Population Research and Policy Review, 33(1), 13–30. doi:10.1007/s11113-013-9307-4.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Burkhardt, J. C., Ortega, N., Vidal-Rodriguez, A., Frye, J. R., Nellum, C. J., Reyes, K. A., et al. (2012). Reconciling federal, state, and institutional policies determining educational access for undocumented students: Implications for professional practice. Ann Arbor, MI: National Forum on Higher Education for the Public Good.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Castro-Salazar, R., & Bagley, C. (2010). ‘Ni de aquí ni from there’. Navigating between contexts: Counter-narratives of undocumented Mexican students in the United States. Race Ethnicity and Education, 13(1), 23–40.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Cervantes-Soon, C. G. (2012). Testimonios of life and learning in the borderlands: Subaltern Juárez girls speak. Equity & Excellence in Education, 45(3), 373–391.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Chang, A. (2011). Undocumented to hyperdocumented: A jornada of protection, papers and PhD status”. Harvard Educational Review, 81(3), 508–520.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Chávez, M. L., Soriano, M., & Olivérez, P. (2007). Undocumented students’ access to college: The American dream denied. Latino Studies, 5, 254–263. doi:10.1057/pal-grave.lst.8600255.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Chen, E. C., Budianto, L., & Wong, K. (2010). Professional school counselors as social justice advocates for undocumented immigrant students in group work. Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 35(3), 255–261.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Contreras, F. (2009). Sin papeles y rompiendo barreras: Latino students and the challenges of persisting in college. Harvard Educational Review, 79(4), 610–632.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Coutin, S. B. (2003). Borderlands, illegality and the spaces of non-existence. In R. Perry & B. Maurer (Eds.), Globalization and governmentalities (pp. 171–202). Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.

    Google Scholar 

  23. Coutin, S. B. (2005). Contesting criminality: Illegal immigration and the spatialization of legality. Theoretical Criminology, 9(1), 5–33.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Coutin, S. B. (2010). Exiled by law: Deportation and the inviability of life. In N. De Genova & N. Peutz (Eds.), The deportation regime: Sovereignty, space, and the freedom of movement. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  25. Coutin, S. B. (2011a). The rights of non-citizens in the United States. Annual Review of Law & Social Science, 7, 289–308.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Coutin, S. B. (2011b). Legal exclusion and dislocated subjectivities: The deportation of Salvadoran youth from the United States. In V. J. Squire (Ed.), The contested politics of mobility: Borderzones and irregularity (pp. 169–183). London, England: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  27. Coutin, S. B. (2013). In the breach: Citizenship and its approximations. Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies, 20(1), 109–140.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Covarrubias, A., & Lara, A. (2014). The undocumented (im)migrant educational pipeline: The influence of citizenship status on educational attainment for people of Mexican origin. Urban Education, 49(1), 75–110.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Crenshaw, K. (1989). Demarginalizing the intersection of race and sex: A black feminist critique of antidiscrimination doctrine, feminist theory and antiracist politics. University of Chicago Legal Forum, 140, 139–167.

    Google Scholar 

  30. Crenshaw, K. (1991). Mapping the margins: Intersectionality, identity politics, and violence against women of color. Stanford Law Review, 43(6), 1241–1299.

  31. Darder, A., Baltodano, M., & Torres, R. D. (Eds.). (2003). The critical pedagogy reader. New York, NY: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  32. Darling-Hammond, L. (2010). The flat world and education: How America’s commitment to equity will determine our future. New York, NY: Teacher’s College Press.

    Google Scholar 

  33. Davies, C. A. (1999). Reflexive ethnography: A guide to researching selves and others. London, England: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  34. De Genova, N. P. (2002). Migrant ‘illegality’ and deportability in everyday life. Annual Review of Anthropology, 31, 419–437.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. De Genova, N. (2005). Working the boundaries: Race, space, and “illegality” in Mexican Chicago. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  36. De Genova, N. (Ed.). (2006). Racial transformations: Latinos and Asians remaking the United States. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  37. De Genova, N., & Peutz, N. (Eds.). (2010). The deportation regime: Sovereignty, space, and the freedom of movement. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  38. De Genova, N., & Ramos-Zayas, A. Y. (2003). Latino crossings: Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and the politics of race and citizenship. New York, NY: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  39. Delgado, B. D. (1997). Chicana school resistance and grassroots leadership: Providing an alternative history of the 1968 East Los Angeles blowouts (Doctoral dissertation).

  40. Diaz-Strong, D., Gómez, C., Luna-Duarte, M. E., & Meiners, E. R. (2011). Purged: Undocumented students, financial aid policies, and access to higher education. Journal of Hispanic Higher Education, 10(2), 107–119.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Dougherty, K. J., Nienhusser, H. K., & Vega, B. (2010). Undocumented immigrants and state higher education policy: The politics of in-state tuition eligibility in Texas and Arizona. Review of Higher Education, 34(1), 123–173.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Dozier, S. B. (2001). Undocumented and documented international students: A comparative study of their academic performance. Community College Review, 29(2), 43–53. doi:10.1177/009155210102900204.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Duncan-Andrade, J. M. R. (2009). Note to educators: Hope required when growing roses in concrete. Harvard Educational Review, 79(2), 181–194.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Ellis, L. M., & Chen, E. C. (2013). Negotiating identity development among undocumented immigrant college students: A grounded theory study. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 60(2), 251–264.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Enriquez, L. E. (2011). “Because we feel the pressure and we also feel the support”: Examining the educational success of undocumented immigrant Latina/o students. Harvard Educational Review, 81(3), 476–500.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. Enriquez, L. E. (2014). Undocumented and citizen students unite”: Building a cross-status coalition through shared ideology. Social Problems, 61(2), 155–174. doi:10.1525/sp.2014.12032.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Fine, M. (1994). Dis-stance and other stances: Negotiations of power inside feminist research. In A. D. Gitlin (Ed.), Power and methods (pp. 13–55). New York, NY: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  48. Flores, S. (2010). State dream acts: The effect of in-state resident tuition policies and undocumented Latino students. Review of Higher Education, 38(1), 239–283.

    Google Scholar 

  49. Flores, S. M., & Horn, C. L. (2009). College persistence among undocumented students at a selective public university: A quantitative case study analysis. Journal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory and Practice, 11(1), 57–76.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Fontana, A., & Frey, J. H. (2000). The interview – from structured questions to negotiated text. In N. Denzin & Y. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  51. Freire, P. (1970). Pedagogy of the oppressed (M. B. Ramos, Trans.). New York: Continuum.

  52. Freire, P. (1973). Education for critical consciousness (Vol. 1). New York, NY: Bloomsbury Publishing.

    Google Scholar 

  53. Galindo, R. (2011). Embodying the gap between national inclusion and exclusion: The congressional testimony of three undocumented students. Harvard Latino Law Review, 14, 377–395.

    Google Scholar 

  54. Galindo, R. (2012). Undocumented and unafraid: The DREAM Act 5 and the public disclosure of undocumented status as a political act. Urban Review: Issues and Ideas in Public Education, 44(5), 589–611.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  55. Garcia, L. D., & Tierney, W. G. (2011). Undocumented immigrants in higher education: A preliminary analysis. Teachers College Record, 113(12), 2739–2776.

    Google Scholar 

  56. Gilbert, M. J. (1982). Cultural determinants in alcohol help seeking. Proposal to the National Institute of Alcohol and Alcohol Abuse, Research Fellowship Program.

  57. Giroux, H. A. (1983). Theory and resistance in education: A pedagogy for the opposition. South Hadley, MA: Bergin & Garvey.

    Google Scholar 

  58. Glenn, E. N. (2011). Constructing citizenship exclusion, subordination, and resistance. American Sociological Review, 76(1), 1–24.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  59. Gonzales, R. G. (2008). Left out but not shut down: Political activism and the undocumented student movement. Northwestern Journal of Law and Social Policy, 3(2), 219–239.

    Google Scholar 

  60. Gonzales, R. (2009). Special report: Young lives on hold: The college dreams of undocumented students. The College Board, 1–27.

  61. Gonzales, R. G. (2010). On the wrong side of the tracks: Understanding the effects of school structure and social capital in the educational pursuits of undocumented immigrant students. Peabody Journal of Education, 85(4), 46.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  62. Gonzales, R. G. (2011). Learning to be illegal undocumented youth and shifting legal contexts in the transition to adulthood. American Sociological Review, 76(4), 602–619.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  63. Heidbrink, L. (2014). Migrant youth, transnational families, and the state: Care and contested interests. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

    Google Scholar 

  64. Hernandez, I., Mendoza, F., Lio, M., Latthi, J., & Eusebio, C. (2011). Things I’ll never say: Stories of growing up undocumented in the United States. Harvard Educational Review, 81(3), 500–508.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  65. Hochschild, J. L. (1995). Facing up the American dream: Race, class, and the soul of the nation. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  66. Holland, D., Lachicotte, W., Skinner, D., & Cain, C. (1998). Agency and identity in cultural worlds. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  67. Huber, L. P. (2010). Using Latina/o critical race theory (LatCrit) and racist nativism to explore intersectionality in the educational experiences of undocumented Chicana college students. Educational Foundations, 24(1–2), 77–96.

    Google Scholar 

  68. Huber, L. P., & Malagon, M. C. (2007). Silenced struggles: The experiences of Latina and Latino undocumented college students in California. The Nevada Journal, 7, 841–861.

    Google Scholar 

  69. Huber, L. P., Malagon, M. C., & Solorzano, D. G. (2009). Struggling for opportunity: Undocumented AB 540 students in the Latina/o education pipeline. CSRC research report no. 13. UCLA Chicano Studies Research Center.

  70. Jacobo, R., & Ochoa, A. M. (2011). Examining the experiences of undocumented college students: Walking the known and unknown lived spaces. Journal of the Association of Mexican American Educators, 5(1), 22–30.

    Google Scholar 

  71. Kincheloe, J. L., & McLaren, P. (2005). Rethinking critical theory and qualitative research. In N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), The Sage handbook of qualitative research (pp. 303–342). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  72. King, K. A., & Punti, G. (2012). On the margins: Undocumented students’ narrated experiences of (il)legality. Linguistics and Education: An International Research Journal, 23(3), 235–249.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  73. Lincoln, Y., & Guba, E. G. (1985). Naturalistic inquiry. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  74. Lopez, J. (2010). Undocumented students and the policies of wasted potential. El Paso, TX: LFB Scholarly Publishing.

    Google Scholar 

  75. Madison, D. S. (2005). Critical ethnography: Method, ethics and performance. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  76. McLaren, P. (1993). Multiculturalism and the postmodern critique: Towards a pedagogy of resistance and transformation. Cultural Studies, 7(1), 118–146.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  77. Menjívar, C., & Abrego, L. (2009). Parents and children across borders: Legal instability and intergenerational relations in Guatemalan and Salvadoran families. In N. Foner (Ed.), Across generations: Immigrant families in America (pp. 160–189). New York, NY: New York University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  78. Muñoz, S. M. (2015). Identity, social activism, and the pursuit of higher education: The journey stories of undocumented and unafraid community activists. New York, NY: Peter Lang.

    Google Scholar 

  79. Muñoz, S. M., & Maldonado, M. M. (2012). Counterstories of college persistence by undocumented Mexicana students: Navigating race, class, gender, and legal status. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 25(3), 293–315.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  80. Narayan, K. (1993). How native is a “native” anthropologist? American Anthropologist, 95(3), 671–686.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  81. Negrón-Gonzales, G. (2014). Undocumented, unafraid and unapologetic: Re-articulatory practices and migrant youth “illegality”. Latino Studies, 12(2), 259–278.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  82. Nguyen, D. K., & Serna, G. R. (2014). Access or barrier? Tuition and fee legislation for undocumented students across the States. Clearing House, 87(3), 124–129. doi:10.1080/00098655.2014.891895.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  83. Nicholls, W. (2013). The DREAMers: How the undocumented youth movement transformed the immigrant rights debate. Palo Alto, California: Stanford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  84. Nienhusser, H. K. (2014). Role of community colleges in the implementation of postsecondary education enrollment policies for undocumented students. Community College Review, 42(1), 3–22. doi:10.1177/0091552113509837.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  85. Noblit, G. W., Flores, S. Y., & Murrillo, E. G., Jr. (Eds.). (2004). Postcritical ethnography: An introduction. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton.

    Google Scholar 

  86. Noddings, N. (2012). The caring relation in teaching. Oxford Review of Education, 38(6), 771–781.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  87. Olivas, M. A. (2012). No undocumented child left behind: Plyler v. Doe and the education of undocumented schoolchildren. New York, NY: NYU Press.

    Google Scholar 

  88. Orner, P. (2008). Underground America: Narratives of undocumented lives. San Francisco, CA: McSweeney’s.

    Google Scholar 

  89. Ortiz, A. M., & Hinojosa, A. (2010). Tenuous options: The career development process for undocumented students. New Directions for Student Services, 131, 53–65.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  90. Passel, J. S., & Cohn, D. (2016). Unauthorized immigrant population stable for half a decade. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center, September. Retrieved from http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2016/09/21/unauthorized-immigrant-population-stable-for-half-a-decade/

  91. Patel, L. (2013). Youth held at the border: Immigration, education and the politics of inclusion. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

    Google Scholar 

  92. Patton, M. Q. (1990). Qualitative evaluation and research methods. Newbury Park, CA: SAGE.

    Google Scholar 

  93. Perez, W. (2009). We are Americans. Sterling, VA: Stylus.

    Google Scholar 

  94. Perez, P. A. (2010a). College choice process of Latino undocumented students: Implications for recruitment and retention. Journal of College Admission, 206, 21–25.

    Google Scholar 

  95. Perez, W. (2010b). Higher education access for undocumented students: Recommendations for counseling professionals. Journal of College Admission, 206, 32–35.

    Google Scholar 

  96. Perez, W. (2012). Americans by heart: Undocumented Latino students and the promise of higher education. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

    Google Scholar 

  97. Pérez, W., & Cortés, R. D. (2011). Undocumented Latino college students: Their socioemotional and academic experiences. El Paso: LFB Scholarly Pub. LLC.

    Google Scholar 

  98. Perez, W., Espinoza, R., Ramos, K., Coronado, H. M., & Cortes, R. (2009). Academic resilience among undocumented Latino students. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 31(2), 149–181.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  99. Pérez, W., Cortés, R. D., Ramos, K., & Coronado, H. (2010). “Cursed and blessed”: Examining the socioemotional and academic experiences of undocumented Latina and Latino college students. New Directions for Student Services, 131, 35–51.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  100. Perez, P. A., & Rodriguez, J. L. (2011). Access and opportunity for Latina/o undocumented college students: Familial and institutional support factors. Journal of the Association of Mexican American Educators, 5(1), 14–21.

    Google Scholar 

  101. Plato. (2003). The republic (D. Lee, Trans.). London: Penguin Press.

  102. Rendón, L. (2009). Sentipensante pedagogy: Educating for wholeness, social justice and liberation. Sterling, VA: Stylus.

    Google Scholar 

  103. Rincon, A. (2010). !Si se puede!: Undocumented immigrants’ struggle for education and their right to stay. Journal of College Admission, 206, 13–18.

    Google Scholar 

  104. Rodriguez, G. M., & Cruz, L. (2009). The transition to college of English learner and undocumented immigrant students: Resource and policy implications. Teachers College Record, 111(10), 2385–2418.

    Google Scholar 

  105. Román, E. (2013). Those damned immigrants: America’s hysteria over undocumented immigration. New York, NY: New York University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  106. Ryscavage, R., & Canaris, M. M. (2013). Undocumented students ask Jesuit higher ed: “Just us” or justice? New England Journal of Higher Education. Retrieved from http://www.nebhe.org/thejournal/undocumented-students-ask-jesuit-higher-education-just-us-or-justice/

  107. Solórzano, D. G., & Bernal, D. D. (2001). Examining transformational resistance through a critical race and LatCrit theory framework: Chicana and Chicano students in an urban context. Urban Education, 36(3), 308–342.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  108. Stanton-Salazar, R. (2001). Manufacturing hope and despair: The school and kin support networks of U.S. Mexican youth. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

    Google Scholar 

  109. Storlie, C. A., & Jach, E. A. (2012). Social justice collaboration in schools: A model for working with undocumented Latino students. Journal for Social Action in Counseling & Psychology, 4(2), 99–116.

    Google Scholar 

  110. Suárez-Orozco, C., Suárez-Orozco, M. M., & Todorova, I. (2010). Learning a new land: Immigrant students in American society. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  111. Syme, S. L. (2004). Social determinants of health: The community as empowered partner. Preventing Chronic Disease: Public Health Research, Practice, and Policy, 1(1), 1–4.

    Google Scholar 

  112. Thomas, J. (1993). Doing critical ethnography. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  113. Torres, R., & Wicks-Asbun, M. (2014). Undocumented students’ narratives of liminal citizenship: High aspirations, exclusion, and “in-between” identities. Professional Geographer, 66(2), 195–204. doi:10.1080/00330124.2012.735936.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  114. Valenzuela, A. (1999). Subtractive schooling: U.S.-Mexican youth and the politics of caring. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

    Google Scholar 

  115. Vargas, E. D. (2011). In-state tuition policies for undocumented youth. Harvard Journal of Hispanic Policy, 23, 43–58.

    Google Scholar 

  116. Viramontez Anguiano, R. P., & Lopez, A. (2012). “El miedo y el hambre”: Understanding the familial, social, and educational realities of undocumented Latino families in North Central Indiana. Journal of Family Social Work, 15(4), 321–336.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  117. West, C. (2004). The impossible will take a little while. In P. Rogat (Ed.), The impossible will take a little while: A citizen’s guide to hope in a time of fear (pp. 293–297). New York: Basic Books.

    Google Scholar 

  118. West, C. (2008). Hope on a tightrope. New York: Smiley Books.

    Google Scholar 

  119. Yosso, T. J. (2005). Whose culture has capital? A critical race theory discussion of community cultural wealth. Race, Ethnicity, and Education, 8(1), 69–91.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Aurora Chang.

Additional information

An erratum to this article is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11256-017-0405-1.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Chang, A., Torrez, M.A., Ferguson, K.N. et al. Figured Worlds and American Dreams: An Exploration of Agency and Identity Among Latinx Undocumented Students. Urban Rev 49, 189–216 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11256-017-0397-x

Download citation

Keywords

  • Undocumented
  • Latinx
  • Figured worlds
  • Community cultural wealth
  • Agency