Assessing Perceptions of Culture and Trauma in an Elementary School: Informing a Model for Culturally Responsive Trauma-Informed Schools
- 2.6k Downloads
Negative outcomes for students of color and those who are economically disadvantaged are troubling patterns in schools nationwide. Systemic racial disparities, including disproportional poverty, are part of the problem. Regardless of their race, however, children who live with poverty often have heightened exposure to adverse experiences. Implementing a culturally responsive trauma-informed approach to understand and respond to students can address the impact of disparities, teach resiliency skills, and promote the wellbeing and achievement of all students. This study describes a school-university collaboration to develop such a model. Findings explore school personnel’s perceptions about race, trauma, and the stressors their students face in the context of the developing model.
KeywordsCulturally responsive Trauma-informed Toxic stress Disproportionality Secondary trauma Sanctuary Model
- Allen, A., Scott, L. M., & Lewis, C. W. (2013). Racial microaggressions and African American and Hispanic students in urban schools: A call for culturally affirming education. Interdisciplinary Journal of Teaching and Learning, 3(2), 117–129.Google Scholar
- Anderson, E. M., Blitz, L. V., & Saastamoinen, M. (2015). Exploring a school-university model for professional development with classroom staff: Teaching trauma-informed approaches. School Community Journal, 25(2), 113–134.Google Scholar
- Bloom, S. L. (1997). Creating sanctuary: Toward the evolution of sane societies. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Bloom, S. L. (2010). Trauma-organized systems and parallel process. In N. Tehrani (Ed.), Managing trauma in the workplace—Supporting workers and the organisation (pp. 139–153). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Boneshefski, M., & Runge, T. (2014). Addressing disproportionate discipline practices within a school-wide positive behavioral intervention and supports framework: A practical guide for calculating and using disproportionality rates. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 16(149), 149–158. doi:10.1177/1098300713484064.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Civil Rights Data Collection. (2012). Revealing new truths about our nation’s schools. U.S. Department of Education, Office for Civil Rights. Retrieved from: http://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ocr/docs/crdc-2012-data-summary.pdf.
- Cole, S. F., Eisner, A., Gregory, M., & Ristuccia, J. (2013). Creating and advocating for trauma-sensitive schools. Trauma and Learning Policy Initiative, partnership of Massachusetts Advocates for Children and Harvard Law School. Retrieved from: www.traumasensitiveschools.org.
- Felitti, V. J., & Anda, R. F. (2010). The relationship of adverse childhood experiences to adult medical disease, psychiatric disorders, and sexual behavior: Implications for healthcare. In R. Lanius & E. Vermetten (Eds.), The hidden epidemic: The impact of early life trauma on health and disease. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Garner, A., Shonkoff, J. P., Siegel, B. S., Dobbins, M. I., Earls, M. F., McGuinn, L., et al. (2012). Early childhood adversity, toxic stress, and the role of the pediatrician: Translating developmental science into lifelong health. Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics, 129, 223–233. doi: 10.1542/peds.2011-2662.Google Scholar
- Gay, G. (2014). Culturally responsive teaching principles, practices, and effects. In H. R. Milner & K. Lomotey (Eds.), Handbook of urban education (pp. 353–372). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Henderson, A. T., & Mapp, K. L. (2002). A new wave of evidence: The impact of school, family, and community connections on student achievement. Austin, TX: National Center for Family and Community Connections with Schools.Google Scholar
- Howell, E. (2004). Access to children’s mental health services under Medicaid and SCHIP. An urban institute program to assess changing social policies, Series B, No. B-60, August 2004. Retrieved from: http://www.urban.org/research/publication/access-childrens-mental-health-services-under-medicaid-and-schip.
- Jensen, E. (2009). Teaching with poverty in mind: What being poor does to kids’ brains and what schools can do about it. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.Google Scholar
- Kornhaber, M. L., Griffith, K., & Tyler, A. (2014). It’s not education by zip code anymore—but what is it? Conceptions of equity under the Common Core. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 22(4). doi:10.14507/epaa.v22n4.2014.
- McCorkle, D., & Yanosy, S. (2007). When loss gets lost: Using the S.E.L.F. Model to work with losses in residential treatment. In A. L. Vargas & S. L. Bloom (Eds.), Loss hurt and hope: The complex issues of bereavement and trauma in children (pp. 116–141). Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Press.Google Scholar
- Mulvaney-Day, N. E., Rappaport, N., Alegría, M., & Codianne, L. M. (2006). Developing systems interventions in a school setting: An application of community-based participatory research for mental health. Ethnicity and Disease, 16(S1), 107–117.Google Scholar
- O’Connor, C., Mueller, J., & Neal, A. (2014). Student resilience in urban America. In H. R. Milner & K. Lomotey (Eds.), Handbook of urban education (pp. 75–96). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Shirley, E. L. M., & Cornell, D. G. (2011). The contribution of student perceptions of school climate to understanding the disproportionate punishment of African American students in a middle school. School Psychology International, 33(2), 115–134. doi:10.1177/0143034311406815.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Skiba, R. J., Horner, R. H., Chung, C.-G., Rausch, M. K., May, S. L., & Tobin, T. (2011). Race is not neutral: A national investigation of African American and Latino disproportionality in school discipline. School Psychology Review, 40(1), 85–107.Google Scholar
- Stanwood, H. M., & Doolittle, G. (2004). Schools as sanctuaries. Reclaiming Children and Youth, 13(3), 169–172.Google Scholar
- Tajalli, H. & Garba, H. A. (2014). Discipline or prejudice? Overrepresentation of minority students in disciplinary alternative education programs. Urban Review, Advanced online copy. doi 10.1007/s11256-014-0274-9.
- Tanner, T. (2013). Culturally responsive educational theories: A practical guide with case studies for improving the academic performance of diverse learners. Cypress, TX: Educational Concepts.Google Scholar
- U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey Briefs. (2012). Household income: 2012. Retrieved from: census.gov.Google Scholar
- Voight, A. (2013). The racial school-climate gap. WestEd Health & Human Development Program. Retrieved from http://eac.wested.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/RacialSchoolClimateGapSynopsis_v2.pdf.