The Urban Review

, Volume 45, Issue 4, pp 472–489 | Cite as

School Context, Precollege Educational Opportunities, and College Degree Attainment Among High-Achieving Black Males

Article

Abstract

Access to high-quality educational opportunities is central to growing postsecondary degree attainment. This study employs secondary data analysis of the public-use National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS:88/00) to examine how school context and precollege educational opportunities influence college degree attainment among high-achieving Black males. Findings show that approximately 40 % of high-achieving Black males attained a bachelor’s degree or higher 8 years after high school. Binary logistic regression analysis indicates that attending an urban school decreases the likelihood of bachelor’s degree attainment. Attending a private school, on the other hand, has the opposite effect—it increases the likelihood of bachelor’s degree attainment. Results also indicate that although participating in a gifted and talented program increases the likelihood of bachelor’s degree attainment among high-achieving Black males, participating in Advanced Placement has no effect. Implications for educators in K-16 educational settings are discussed.

Keywords

Access Achievement African American Gifted Postsecondary 

References

  1. Adelman, C. (2002). The relationship between urbanicity and educational outcomes. In W. G. Tierney & L. S. Hagedorn (Eds.), Increasing access to college: Extending possibilities for all students (pp. 35–63). Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  2. Adelman, C. (2006). The toolbox revisited: Paths to degree completion from high school through college. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education.Google Scholar
  3. Anyon, J. (2005). Radical possibilities: Public policy, urban education, and a new social movement. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  4. Aud, S., Fox, M., & KewalRamani, A. (2010). Status and trends in the education of racial and ethnic groups (NCES 2010-015). U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  5. Aud, S., Hussar, W., Johnson, F., Kena, G., Roth, E., Manning, E., et al. (2012). The condition of education 2012 (NCES 2012-045). U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Washington, DC. Retrieved July 13, 2013 from http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch.
  6. Baker, B. D., & Friedman-Nimz, R. (2002). Determinants of the availability of opportunities for gifted children: Evidence from NELS’88. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 1, 52–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barnard-Brak, L., McGaha-Garnett, V., & Burley, H. (2011). Advanced Placement course enrollment and school-level characteristics. NASSP Bulletin, 95, 165–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bhatt, R. (2009). The impacts of gifted and talented education (working paper). Retrieved from http://www2.gsu.edu/~ecorrb/index_files/research.htm.
  9. Bonner, F. A., II. (2010). Academically gifted African American male college students. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger.Google Scholar
  10. Braun, H., Jenkins, F., & Grigg, W. (2006). Comparing private schools and public schools using hierarchical linear modeling (NCES 2006-461). U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  11. Brown, V. (1954). Board of Education, 347 U.S. 483.Google Scholar
  12. Buchanan, C. M. (2006). The impact of race and socioeconomic status on post-secondary achievement. International Journal of Learning, 16, 69–81.Google Scholar
  13. Byrd, S. (with Ellington, L., Gross, P., Jago, C., Stern, S.). (2007). Advanced Placement and International Baccalaureate: Do they deserve gold star status? Washington, DC: Thomas B. Fordham Institute.Google Scholar
  14. Carbonaro, W., & Covay, E. (2010). School sector and student achievement in the era of standards based reform. Sociology of Education, 83, 160–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Challenge Success. (2013). The Advanced Placement program: Living up to its promise? Retrieved from Challenge Success website: http://www.challengesuccess.org/research/white-papers.aspx.
  16. College Board. (2012). The 8th annual AP report to the nation. New York, NY: Author.Google Scholar
  17. Corra, M., Carter, J. S., & Carter, S. K. (2011). The interactive impact of race and gender on high school advanced course enrollment. The Journal of Negro Education, 80, 33–46.Google Scholar
  18. Curtin, T. R., Ingels, S. J., Wu, S., & Heuer, R. (2002). National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988: Base-year to fourth follow-up data file user’s manual (NCES 2002–323). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.Google Scholar
  19. Ford, D. Y., Grantham, T. C., & Whiting, G. W. (2008). Culturally and linguistically diverse students in gifted education: Recruitment and retention issues. Exceptional Children, 64, 289–306.Google Scholar
  20. Geiser, S., & Santelices, V. (2004). The role of Advanced Placement and honors courses in college admissions (Research & Occasional Paper Series, CSHE.4.04). Berkeley, CA: Center for Studies in Higher Education.Google Scholar
  21. Graham, A., & Anderson, K. A. (2008). “I have to be three steps ahead”: Academically gifted African American male students in an urban high school on the tension between ethnic and academic identity. Urban Review, 40, 472–499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Graham, J. W. (2009). Missing data analysis: Making it work in the real world. American Review of Psychology, 60, 549–576.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Grantham, T. C. (2004). Rocky Jones: Case study of a high-achieving Black male’s motivation to participate in gifted classes. Roeper Review, 26, 208–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hallett, R. E., & Venegas, K. M. (2011). Is increased access enough? Advanced placement courses, quality, and success in low-income urban schools. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 34, 468–487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hanushek, E. A., Peterson, P., & Woessmann, L. (2010). U.S. math performance in global perspective: How well does each state do at producing high-achieving students? (PEPG Report No.: 10-19). Cambridge, MA: Program on Education, Policy & Governance, Harvard University.Google Scholar
  26. Hargrove, L., Godin, D., & Dodd, B. (2008). College outcomes comparisons by AP and non-AP experiences (Research Report 2008-3). New York, NY: College Board.Google Scholar
  27. Harper, S. R. (2008). Realizing the intended outcomes of Brown: High-achieving African American male undergraduates and social capital. American Behavioral Scientist, 51, 1030–1053.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Harper, S. R. (2012). Black male student success in higher education: A report from the national Black male college achievement study. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, Center for the Study of Race and Equity in Education.Google Scholar
  29. Harper, S. R., & Griffin, K. A. (2011). Opportunity beyond affirmative action: How low-income and working-class Black male achievers access highly selective and high-cost colleges and universities. Harvard Journal of African American Public Policy, 17, 43–60.Google Scholar
  30. Hébert, T. P. (2001). Jermaine: A critical case study of a gifted Black child living in rural poverty. Gifted Child Quarterly, 45, 85–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hébert, T. P. (2002). Gifted Black males in a predominately White university: Portraits of high achievement. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 26, 25–64.Google Scholar
  32. Henfield, M. S., Moore, J. L., III, & Wood, C. (2008). Inside and outside gifted education programming: Hidden challenges for African American students. Exceptional Children, 74, 433–450.Google Scholar
  33. Hertzog, N. B. (2003). Impact of gifted programs from the students’ perspective. Gifted Child Quarterly, 47, 131–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Holzman, M. (2006). Public education & Black male students: The 2006 state report card. Cambridge, MA: Schott Foundation.Google Scholar
  35. Hrabowski, F. A., III, Maton, K. I., & Greif, G. L. (1998). Beating the odds: Raising academically successful African American males. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Kirsch, I., Braun, H., Yamamoto, K., & Sum, A. (2007). America’s perfect storm: Three forces changing our nation’s future. Retrieved from http://www.ets.org/Media/Education_Topics/pdf/AmericasPerfectStorm.pdf.
  37. Klopfenstein, K. (2004). Advanced placement: Do minorities have equal opportunity? Economics of Education Review, 23, 115–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Klopfenstein, K., & Thomas, M. K. (2009). The link between Advanced Placement experience and early college success. Southern Economic Journal, 75, 873–891.Google Scholar
  39. Konstantopoulos, S., Modi, M., & Hedges, L. V. (2001). Who are America’s gifted? American Journal of Education, 109, 344–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kozol, J. (2005). The shame of a nation: The restoration of apartheid schooling in America. New York, NY: Crown Publishers.Google Scholar
  41. Lee, J. M, Jr, & Ransom, T. (2011). The educational experience of young men of color: A review of research, pathways and progress. New York, NY: College Board Advocacy and Policy Center.Google Scholar
  42. Lippman, L., Burns, S., & McArthur, E. (1996). Urban schools: The challenge of location and poverty (NCES 96-184). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement.Google Scholar
  43. Lohman, D. F. (2006). Identifying academically talented minority students (Research Monograph No. RM05216). Storrs: The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented, University of Connecticut.Google Scholar
  44. Loveless, T. (2008). Analysis of NAEP data. In A. Duffett, S. Farkas, & T. Loveless (Eds.), High-achieving students in the era of NCLB (pp. 13–48). Washington, DC: Thomas B. Fordham Institute.Google Scholar
  45. Lubienski, S. T., & Lubienski, C. (2006). Student sector and academic achievement: A multilevel analysis of NAEP mathematics data. American Educational Research Journal, 43, 651–698.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Moore, J. L., III, & Flowers, L. A. (2012). Increasing the representation of African American males in gifted and talented programs. In M. Casserly, S. Lewis, C. Simon, R. Uzzell, & M. Palacios (Eds.), Providing solutions for Black male achievement: Council of the Great City Schools (pp. 60–74). Washington, DC: Council of the Great City Schools.Google Scholar
  47. Morris, J. E. (2002). African American students and gifted education: The politics of race and culture. Roeper Review, 24, 59–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Noguera, P. A. (2009). The trouble with Black boys: And other reflections on race, equity, and the future of public education. San Francisco, CA: Wiley.Google Scholar
  49. Obama, B. (2011, March 4). Remarks by the President at Miami Central High School in Miami, Florida. Retrieved from http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2011/03/04/remarks-president-miami-central-high-school-miami-florida.
  50. Peters, S. J., & Gentry, M. (2012). Group-specific norms and teacher-rating scales: Implications for underrepresentation. Journal of Advanced Academics, 23, 125–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Peterson, P. E., & Llaudet, E. (2007). The NCES private-public school study: Findings are other than they seem. Education Next, 7(1), 75–79.Google Scholar
  52. Peugh, J. L., & Enders, C. K. (2004). Missing data in educational research: A review of reporting practices and suggestions for improvement. Review of Educational Research, 74, 525–556.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Reis, S. M., & Díaz, E. (1999). Economically disadvantaged urban female students who achieve in schools. The Urban Review, 31, 31–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Rose, V. C. (2012). Empirical support for a broadened conception of giftedness: Implications for school leaders. In M. F. DiPaola & P. B. Forsyth (Eds.), Contemporary challenges confronting school leaders (pp. 189–213). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.Google Scholar
  55. Sander, W. (2006). Educational attainment and residential location. Education and Urban Society, 38, 307–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Schneider, B., Carnoy, M., Kilpatrick, J., Schmidt, W. H., & Shavelson, R. J. (2007). Estimating causal effects using experimental and observational designs. Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association.Google Scholar
  57. Schott Foundation. (2009). Opportunity to learn: A 50 state report on the opportunity to learn in America. Cambridge, MA: Author.Google Scholar
  58. Scott, T. P., Tolson, H., & Lee, Y.-K. (2010). Assessment of Advanced Placement participation and university academic success in the first semester: Controlling for selected high school academic abilities. Journal of College Admission, 208, 26–30.Google Scholar
  59. Snyder, T. D., & Dillow, S. A. (2012). Digest of education statistics 2011 (NCES 2012-001). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education.Google Scholar
  60. Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.Google Scholar
  61. Tate, W. F., IV. (2008). “Geography of opportunity”: Poverty, place, and educational outcomes. Educational Researcher, 37, 397–411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement. (1993). National excellence: A case for developing America’s talent. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  63. Welner, K. G., & Carter, P. L. (2013). Achievement gaps arise from opportunity gaps. In P. L. Carter & K. G. Welner (Eds.), Closing the opportunity gap: What America must do to give every child an even chance (pp. 1–10). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Wenglinsky, H. (2007). Are private high schools better academically than public high schools?. Washington, DC: Center on Education Policy.Google Scholar
  65. Wyner, J. S., Bridgeland, J. M., & Diiulio, J. J., Jr. (2007). Achievement trap: How America is failing millions of high-achieving students from lower-income families. Landsdowne, VA: Jack Kent Cooke Foundation.Google Scholar
  66. Yoon, S. Y., & Gentry, M. (2009). Racial and ethnic representation in gifted programs: Current status of and implications for gifted Asian American students. Gifted Child Quarterly, 53, 121–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of EducationVirginia Tech, Hampton Roads CenterVirginia BeachUSA

Personalised recommendations