School Context, Precollege Educational Opportunities, and College Degree Attainment Among High-Achieving Black Males
Access to high-quality educational opportunities is central to growing postsecondary degree attainment. This study employs secondary data analysis of the public-use National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS:88/00) to examine how school context and precollege educational opportunities influence college degree attainment among high-achieving Black males. Findings show that approximately 40 % of high-achieving Black males attained a bachelor’s degree or higher 8 years after high school. Binary logistic regression analysis indicates that attending an urban school decreases the likelihood of bachelor’s degree attainment. Attending a private school, on the other hand, has the opposite effect—it increases the likelihood of bachelor’s degree attainment. Results also indicate that although participating in a gifted and talented program increases the likelihood of bachelor’s degree attainment among high-achieving Black males, participating in Advanced Placement has no effect. Implications for educators in K-16 educational settings are discussed.
KeywordsAccess Achievement African American Gifted Postsecondary
- Adelman, C. (2002). The relationship between urbanicity and educational outcomes. In W. G. Tierney & L. S. Hagedorn (Eds.), Increasing access to college: Extending possibilities for all students (pp. 35–63). Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
- Adelman, C. (2006). The toolbox revisited: Paths to degree completion from high school through college. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education.Google Scholar
- Anyon, J. (2005). Radical possibilities: Public policy, urban education, and a new social movement. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Aud, S., Fox, M., & KewalRamani, A. (2010). Status and trends in the education of racial and ethnic groups (NCES 2010-015). U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
- Aud, S., Hussar, W., Johnson, F., Kena, G., Roth, E., Manning, E., et al. (2012). The condition of education 2012 (NCES 2012-045). U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Washington, DC. Retrieved July 13, 2013 from http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch.
- Bhatt, R. (2009). The impacts of gifted and talented education (working paper). Retrieved from http://www2.gsu.edu/~ecorrb/index_files/research.htm.
- Bonner, F. A., II. (2010). Academically gifted African American male college students. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger.Google Scholar
- Braun, H., Jenkins, F., & Grigg, W. (2006). Comparing private schools and public schools using hierarchical linear modeling (NCES 2006-461). U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
- Brown, V. (1954). Board of Education, 347 U.S. 483.Google Scholar
- Buchanan, C. M. (2006). The impact of race and socioeconomic status on post-secondary achievement. International Journal of Learning, 16, 69–81.Google Scholar
- Byrd, S. (with Ellington, L., Gross, P., Jago, C., Stern, S.). (2007). Advanced Placement and International Baccalaureate: Do they deserve gold star status? Washington, DC: Thomas B. Fordham Institute.Google Scholar
- Challenge Success. (2013). The Advanced Placement program: Living up to its promise? Retrieved from Challenge Success website: http://www.challengesuccess.org/research/white-papers.aspx.
- College Board. (2012). The 8th annual AP report to the nation. New York, NY: Author.Google Scholar
- Corra, M., Carter, J. S., & Carter, S. K. (2011). The interactive impact of race and gender on high school advanced course enrollment. The Journal of Negro Education, 80, 33–46.Google Scholar
- Curtin, T. R., Ingels, S. J., Wu, S., & Heuer, R. (2002). National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988: Base-year to fourth follow-up data file user’s manual (NCES 2002–323). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.Google Scholar
- Ford, D. Y., Grantham, T. C., & Whiting, G. W. (2008). Culturally and linguistically diverse students in gifted education: Recruitment and retention issues. Exceptional Children, 64, 289–306.Google Scholar
- Geiser, S., & Santelices, V. (2004). The role of Advanced Placement and honors courses in college admissions (Research & Occasional Paper Series, CSHE.4.04). Berkeley, CA: Center for Studies in Higher Education.Google Scholar
- Hanushek, E. A., Peterson, P., & Woessmann, L. (2010). U.S. math performance in global perspective: How well does each state do at producing high-achieving students? (PEPG Report No.: 10-19). Cambridge, MA: Program on Education, Policy & Governance, Harvard University.Google Scholar
- Hargrove, L., Godin, D., & Dodd, B. (2008). College outcomes comparisons by AP and non-AP experiences (Research Report 2008-3). New York, NY: College Board.Google Scholar
- Harper, S. R. (2012). Black male student success in higher education: A report from the national Black male college achievement study. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, Center for the Study of Race and Equity in Education.Google Scholar
- Harper, S. R., & Griffin, K. A. (2011). Opportunity beyond affirmative action: How low-income and working-class Black male achievers access highly selective and high-cost colleges and universities. Harvard Journal of African American Public Policy, 17, 43–60.Google Scholar
- Hébert, T. P. (2002). Gifted Black males in a predominately White university: Portraits of high achievement. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 26, 25–64.Google Scholar
- Henfield, M. S., Moore, J. L., III, & Wood, C. (2008). Inside and outside gifted education programming: Hidden challenges for African American students. Exceptional Children, 74, 433–450.Google Scholar
- Holzman, M. (2006). Public education & Black male students: The 2006 state report card. Cambridge, MA: Schott Foundation.Google Scholar
- Hrabowski, F. A., III, Maton, K. I., & Greif, G. L. (1998). Beating the odds: Raising academically successful African American males. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Kirsch, I., Braun, H., Yamamoto, K., & Sum, A. (2007). America’s perfect storm: Three forces changing our nation’s future. Retrieved from http://www.ets.org/Media/Education_Topics/pdf/AmericasPerfectStorm.pdf.
- Klopfenstein, K., & Thomas, M. K. (2009). The link between Advanced Placement experience and early college success. Southern Economic Journal, 75, 873–891.Google Scholar
- Kozol, J. (2005). The shame of a nation: The restoration of apartheid schooling in America. New York, NY: Crown Publishers.Google Scholar
- Lee, J. M, Jr, & Ransom, T. (2011). The educational experience of young men of color: A review of research, pathways and progress. New York, NY: College Board Advocacy and Policy Center.Google Scholar
- Lippman, L., Burns, S., & McArthur, E. (1996). Urban schools: The challenge of location and poverty (NCES 96-184). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement.Google Scholar
- Lohman, D. F. (2006). Identifying academically talented minority students (Research Monograph No. RM05216). Storrs: The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented, University of Connecticut.Google Scholar
- Loveless, T. (2008). Analysis of NAEP data. In A. Duffett, S. Farkas, & T. Loveless (Eds.), High-achieving students in the era of NCLB (pp. 13–48). Washington, DC: Thomas B. Fordham Institute.Google Scholar
- Moore, J. L., III, & Flowers, L. A. (2012). Increasing the representation of African American males in gifted and talented programs. In M. Casserly, S. Lewis, C. Simon, R. Uzzell, & M. Palacios (Eds.), Providing solutions for Black male achievement: Council of the Great City Schools (pp. 60–74). Washington, DC: Council of the Great City Schools.Google Scholar
- Noguera, P. A. (2009). The trouble with Black boys: And other reflections on race, equity, and the future of public education. San Francisco, CA: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Obama, B. (2011, March 4). Remarks by the President at Miami Central High School in Miami, Florida. Retrieved from http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2011/03/04/remarks-president-miami-central-high-school-miami-florida.
- Peterson, P. E., & Llaudet, E. (2007). The NCES private-public school study: Findings are other than they seem. Education Next, 7(1), 75–79.Google Scholar
- Rose, V. C. (2012). Empirical support for a broadened conception of giftedness: Implications for school leaders. In M. F. DiPaola & P. B. Forsyth (Eds.), Contemporary challenges confronting school leaders (pp. 189–213). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.Google Scholar
- Schneider, B., Carnoy, M., Kilpatrick, J., Schmidt, W. H., & Shavelson, R. J. (2007). Estimating causal effects using experimental and observational designs. Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association.Google Scholar
- Schott Foundation. (2009). Opportunity to learn: A 50 state report on the opportunity to learn in America. Cambridge, MA: Author.Google Scholar
- Scott, T. P., Tolson, H., & Lee, Y.-K. (2010). Assessment of Advanced Placement participation and university academic success in the first semester: Controlling for selected high school academic abilities. Journal of College Admission, 208, 26–30.Google Scholar
- Snyder, T. D., & Dillow, S. A. (2012). Digest of education statistics 2011 (NCES 2012-001). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education.Google Scholar
- Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.Google Scholar
- U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement. (1993). National excellence: A case for developing America’s talent. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
- Wenglinsky, H. (2007). Are private high schools better academically than public high schools?. Washington, DC: Center on Education Policy.Google Scholar
- Wyner, J. S., Bridgeland, J. M., & Diiulio, J. J., Jr. (2007). Achievement trap: How America is failing millions of high-achieving students from lower-income families. Landsdowne, VA: Jack Kent Cooke Foundation.Google Scholar