Classification of non-gonococcal urethritis: a review

  • Mehmet SarierEmail author
  • Erdal Kukul
Urology - Review


Non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) is the most common disease of the genital tract in men. Recent studies have recommended avoiding the empiric antibiotic administrations that constitute the classical treatment approach in NGU and to aim toward treatment of causative pathogens. However, the classification of NGU agents remains controversial. In addition, the relevance of the commensalism of Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Ureaplasma parvum, and Gardnerella vaginalis, which are among the opportunistic pathogens found in the urethral flora, has yet to be determined. Furthermore, there are certain pathogens on which sufficient studies have not been conducted, although they are known to be NGU pathogens, and their statuses should be updated. In this review, the classification of NGU pathogens is summarized in the light of the current literature.


Non-gonococcal urethritis Classification Urethritis PCR 



Centers for disease control and prevention


Chlamydia trachomatis


Epstein–Barr virus


European Association of Urology


Gram-stained urethral smear


Gonococcal urethritis


Gardnerella vaginalis


Human immunodeficiency virus


Herpes simplex virus


Moraxella catarrhalis


Mycoplasma genitalium


Mycoplasma hominis


Men sex with men


Nucleic acid amplification test


Non-gonococcal urethritis


Neisseria meningitidis


Polymerase chain reaction


Pelvic inflammatory disease


Polymorphonuclear leucocytes/high-power fields


Sexually transmitted disease


Trichomonas vaginalis


Ureaplasma parvum


Ureaplasma urealyticum



No funding received for this work.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare no conflict of interest.


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© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Urology, Medical FacultyIstinye UniversityIstanbulTurkey
  2. 2.Department of UrologyMedical Park HospitalAntalyaTurkey

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