International Urology and Nephrology

, Volume 50, Issue 6, pp 1039–1052 | Cite as

Silymarin and celecoxib ameliorate experimental varicocele-induced pathogenesis: evidences for oxidative stress and inflammation inhibition

  • Sara Mazhari
  • Mazdak Razi
  • Rajabali Sadrkhanlou
Urology - Original Paper



The present study was done to investigate the ameliorative effect of silymarin (SMN) and celecoxib (CEL) on varicocele (VCL)-induced detrimental impact in testicular tissue.


Mature Wistar rats were divided into control and test groups. Following VCL induction, the animals in test group were subdivided into non-treated VCL-induced, SMN-treated (50 mg/kg, orally), CEL-treated (10 mg/kg) and SMN + CEL-treated groups. Following 60 days, testicular total antioxidant capacity (TAC), malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px), total thiol molecules (TTM), mRNA and protein levels of COX2 and mRNA level of iNos were analyzed. Moreover, the germinal cells apoptosis and mRNA damage were examined.


Observations revealed that co-administration of SMN and CEL significantly (P < 0.05) up-regulated TAC, SOD, GSH-px and TTM levels and resulted in a remarkable (P < 0.05) reduction in iNos and COX2 expression, NO and MDA contents. The animals in SMN + CEL-treated group exhibited significantly (P < 0.05) lower number of apoptotic cells and cells with mRNA damage per one mm2.


The SMN by up-regulating testicular TAC, SOD, GSH-px and TTM levels and the CEL by inhibiting COX2 and iNos expression as well as NO content could fairly ameliorate the VCL-decreased spermatogenesis.


Varicocele COX2 iNos Oxidative stress Testis 



The authors wish to thank Department of Comparative Histology and Embryology for technical support and Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University. Moreover, current manuscript is obtained from thesis no: 1408, which is proofed by Urmia University. Moreover, this research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Histology and Embryology, Department of Basic Science, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineUrmia UniversityUrmiaIran

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