Recommendations for urological follow-up of patients with neurogenic bladder secondary to spinal cord injury
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To review currently available guidelines and recommendations regarding urological follow-up of patients after spinal cord injury (SCI) and present an evidence-based summary to support clinicians in their clinical practice.
Maximum data were collected according to different methods, including searches with multiple and specific keywords, reference checks, gray literature searches (congress reports, working papers, statement documents), and browsing-related Web site access. Obtained data were analyzed with the modified version of the Oxford grading system for recommendations using levels of evidence (LE) and grades of recommendation (GR).
Different surveillance strategies exist, but there is no consensus among authors and organizations. As a result, practice patterns vary around the world. The present review indicates that proper urological follow-up of SCI patients should consist of medical history (LE 1-4, GR B-C), clinical examination (LE 4, GR C), renal laboratory tests (LE 1-3, GR B), imaging surveillance of the upper urinary tract (LE 1-3, GR A-B), urodynamic study (LE 2-4, GR B-C), and cystoscopy/cytology (LE 1-4, GR D). Clinicians agree that SCI patients should be followed up regularly with an individually tailored approach. A 1-year follow-up schedule seems reasonable in SCI patients without additional risk factors of renal deterioration (LE 3-4, GR C). In those who manifest risk factors, report changes in bladder behavior, or present with already developed complications of neurogenic bladder dysfunction, follow-up plans should be modified with more frequent checkups (LE 4, GR C). Urodynamic study should be repeated and considered as a routine monitoring strategy.
Individuals with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction are at increased risk of multiple complications. Nevertheless, proper follow-up after SCI improves the prognosis for these patients and their quality of life.
KeywordsSpinal cord injury Neurogenic bladder Neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction Follow-up Monitoring
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
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