The role of socio-demographic factors in depression and anxiety of patients on hemodialysis: an observational cross-sectional study
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Depression and anxiety have high prevalence in patients on hemodialysis and are strongly associated with socio-economic factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of depression and anxiety in hemodialyzed patients in Greece and its association with socio-demographic factors.
Four hundred and fourteen (414) patients on hemodialysis (262 males and 152 females) from 24 dialysis centers in Greece participated in this observational cross-sectional study. Mean age was 63.54 (54.06–72.41), and mean time of dialysis treatment was 36 (16–72) months. Depression and anxiety were assessed by the state–trait anxiety inventory (STAI), the beck depression inventory (BDI) and the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS). Multinomial logistic regression was performed to estimate the factors being independently associated with anxiety and depression levels (HADS scale). Multiple linear regression was performed to estimate the factors being independently associated with BDI and STAI.
From a total of 414 participants, (29.4%, n = 122) had depression and 35.9% (n = 149) had anxiety. Depression and anxiety were significantly associated with females, low level of education, increased patients’ age, retirement, poor financial situation, marital status and co-morbidities.
The overall study findings indicated a significant correlation between the levels of anxiety and depression in patients on hemodialysis. Patients with high levels of anxiety had higher levels of depression and those with high depression scores had higher anxiety scores.
KeywordsAnxiety Depression Hemodialysis Kidney failure Socio-demographic factors
This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest in publishing this research article.
This study was conducted under the approval of the Ethics Committee of National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Department of Medicine, ‘Aretaieio’ Hospital.
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