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Increased risks of healthcare-seeking behaviors of anxiety, depression and insomnia among patients with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis: a nationwide population-based study

  • Urology - Original Paper
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To explore the association between bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) and the risk of subsequent healthcare-seeking behavior for common mental disorders in Taiwan using a population-based administrative database.

Materials and methods

Both BPS/IC subjects and their age- and sex-matched non-BPS/IC control subjects who had no previous insomnia and mental diseases, including anxiety, depression, were subsequent serviced for these mental disorders by psychiatrists from the recruited date between 2002 and 2010. The risk of outcomes was assessed with Kaplan–Meier curves; and the impact of BPS/IC was estimated with Poisson regression analysis and Cox proportional hazards models.


We included 16,185 BPS/IC subjects and 32,370 non-BPS/IC subjects, with a mean age of 46 years and 73.5 % of women. Difference of the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and hyperlipidemia between groups was not significant difference. Subjects with BPS/IC had a significant higher incidence rate of anxiety, depression, and insomnia than the matched controls (92.9 vs 38.4, 101.0 vs 42.2, 47.5 vs 23.0; per 10,000 person-year). After adjusting for age, sex, and common comorbidities in multivariable analysis, BPS/IC remained a significant predictor with hazard ratio and 95 % confidence incidence, 2.4 (2.2–2.7), 2.4 (2.2–2.6), and 2.1 (1.8–2.4) for anxiety, depression, and insomnia, respectively.


Patients with BPS/IC are at risk of development of anxiety, depression, and insomnia. These findings can help guide urologists, urogynecologists, and psychiatrists toward early identification and treatment of psychological complications that may develop in BPS/IC patients.

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This study is based in part on data from the National Health Insurance Research Database provided by the National Health Insurance Administration, Ministry of Health and Welfare and managed by National Health Research Institutes (Registered number NHIRD-102-044_). The interpretation and conclusions contained herein do not represent those of National Health Insurance Administration, Ministry of Health and Welfare or National Health Research Institutes.

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All authors declare no conflict of interest.

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Correspondence to Charles Lung-Cheng Huang or Ming-Ping Wu.

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Charles Lung-Cheng Huang and Ming-Ping Wu have contributed equally to this work.

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Chuang, YC., Weng, SF., Hsu, YW. et al. Increased risks of healthcare-seeking behaviors of anxiety, depression and insomnia among patients with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis: a nationwide population-based study. Int Urol Nephrol 47, 275–281 (2015).

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