Skip to main content

Spread of the invasive Javan myna along an urban–suburban gradient in Peninsular Malaysia

Abstract

Invasive species can spread rapidly at local and national scales, resulting in significant environmental and economic impacts. Rapid urbanisation and deforestation can accelerate the spread of invasive species and depress populations of native species. We studied the pattern of spread of the Javan myna Acridotheres javanicus, an introduced species in Peninsular Malaysia that has benefited greatly from urbanisation over the past 40 years (1981–2020). We used the online database eBird–a citizen science project–to build a species distribution model using data collected by birdwatchers from discrete locations and visits. We show that the invasive Javan myna range has drastically increased in Peninsular Malaysia over the past 40 years following the escape and release of captive individuals. The number of mynas continued to increase over four 10-year observation phases. Notably, there was a particularly drastic increase in 2011–2020 period, with 56,201 Javan myna observations. The cumulative Javan myna range across Peninsular Malaysia was 28,855 km2 in 2011–2020, with the majority of this distribution occurring in two major metropolitan cities: greater Kuala Lumpur (including the suburban area, Selangor) and Johor. In urban areas of Peninsular Malaysia, the Javan myna spread rate increased by approximately 44.4% from the 2001–2010 period to the 2011–2020 period. A species distribution model applied to the entirety of Peninsular Malaysia showed that urban land use was related to the model. The generalised linear model showed a significant positive relationship between urban area expansion and Javan myna abundance. We effectively map the spread of the highly invasive Javan myna and highlight the need for an improved management plan that includes a risk prediction analysis and management strategies for this species. Such dynamic mapping and analyses is crucial for better understanding of the mechanisms that lead to the persistence of urban biodiversity.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5

Availability of data and materials

Detail Javan Myna dataset in Peninsular Malaysia can be accessed in eBird.

Abbreviations

GLMs:

Generalized Linear Models

PAST:

Paleontological Statistics

References

  • Abernethy KA, Coad L, Taylor G, Lee ME, Maisels F (2013) Extent and ecological consequences of hunting in Central African rainforests in the twenty-first century. Philos Trans R Soc B Biol Sci 368:20130494

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Corlett RT (2007) The impact of hunting on the mammalian fauna of tropical Asian forests. Biotropica 39:292–303

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Craig A, Feare C (2017) Javan Myna (Acridotheres javanicus). In: del Hoyo, Elliott JA, Sargatal J, Christie DA, de Juana E (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from https://www.hbw.com/node/60869 on 27 February 2021)

  • Crowl TA, Crist TO, Parmenter RR, Belovsky G, Lugo AE (2008) The spread of invasive species and infectious disease as drivers of ecosystem change. Front Ecol Environ 6:238–246

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ditchkoff SS, Saalfeld ST, Gibso CJ (2006) Animal behavior in urban ecosystems: Modifications due to human-induced stress. Urban Ecosyst 9:5–12

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Early R, Bradley B, Dukes JS, Lawler JJ, Olden JD, Blumenthal DM, Gonzalez P, Grosholz ED, Ibañez I, Miller LP, Sorte CJ (2016) Global threats from invasive alien species in the twenty-first century and national response capacities. Nat Commun 7:12485

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fink D, Hochachka WM, Zuckerberg B, Winkler DW, Shaby B, Munson MA, Hooker G, Riedewald M, Sheldon D, Kelling S (2010) Spatiotemporal exploratory models for large-scale survey data. Ecol Appl 20:2131–2147

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Flint EP (1994) Changes in land use in South and Southeast Asia from 1880 to 1980: A data base prepared as part of a coordinated research program on carbon fluxes in the tropics. Chemosphere 29:1015–1062

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hammer O, Harper D, Ryan P (2001) Paleontological statistics software package for education and data analysis. Palaeontol Electron 4(1):9

    Google Scholar 

  • Hernández-Brito D, Carrete M, Popa-Lisseanu AG, Ibáñez C, Tella JL (2014) Crowding in the city: Losing and winning competitors of an invasive bird. PLoS One 9(6):e100593

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hulme PE (2006) Beyond control: Wider implications for the management of biological invasions. J Appl Ecol 43:835–847

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hulme PE (2009) Trade, transport and trouble: Managing invasive species pathways in an era of globalization. J Appl Ecol 46:10–18

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Iqbal M, Noske RA, Hermawan B, Istanto D, Arfi M (2014) The first wild Common Mynas Acridotheres tristis in Java: colonists or aviary escapees? Kukila 18(1):22–26

    Google Scholar 

  • Iqbal M, Setyawan B, Johannis HS, Lasmana F (2013) The occurrence of common Myna Acridotheres tristis and white-vented Myna A. javanicus in Kalimantan. Kukila 17:26–29

    Google Scholar 

  • IUCN (2020) The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2020–3. https://www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 11 February 2021

  • Jeyarajasingam A, Pearson A (2012) A field guide to the Birds of Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore. Oxford University Press, New York

    Google Scholar 

  • Kelling S, Fink D, La Sorte FA, Johnston A, Bruns NE, Hochachka WM (2015) Taking a ‘Big Data’ approach to data quality in a citizen science project. Ambio 44:601–611

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kolar CS, Lodge DM (2001) Progress in invasion biology: predicting invaders. Trends Ecol Evol 16:199–204

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lim HC, Sodhi NS (2004) Responses of avian guilds to urbanisation in a tropical city. Landsc Urban Plan 66:199–215

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lim HC, Sodhi NS, Brook BW, Soh MCK (2003) Undesirable aliens: Factors determining the distribution of three invasive bird species in Singapore. J Trop Ecol 19:685–695

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mansor MS, Halim MRA, Abdullah NA, Ramli R, Cranbrook E (2020) Barn Swallows Hirundo rustica in Peninsular Malaysia: urban winter roost counts after 50 years, and dietary segregation from house-farmed swiftlets Aerodramus sp. Raffles Bull Zool 68:238–248

    Google Scholar 

  • Mansor MS, Nor SM, Ramli R, Sah SAM (2018) Niche shift in three foraging insectivorous birds in lowland Malaysian forest patches. Behav Processes 157:73–79

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mansor MS, Ramli R (2017) Niche separation in flycatcher-like species in the lowland rainforests of Malaysia. Behav Processes 140:121–126

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mooney HA, Cleland EE (2001) The evolutionary impact of invasive species. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98(10):5446–5451

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Newsome TM, Van Eeden LM (2017) The effects of food waste on wildlife and humans. Sustainability 9(7):1269

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nghiem LTP, Soliman T, Yeo DCJ, Tan HTW, Evans TA, Mumford JD, Keller RP, Baker RHA, Corlett RT, Carrasco LR (2013) Economic and Environmental Impacts of Harmful Non-Indigenous Species in Southeast Asia. PLoS One 8(8):e71255

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Puan CL, Yeong KL, Ong KW, Fauzi MI, Yahya MS, Khoo SS (2019) Influence of landscape matrix on urban bird abundance: evidence from Malaysian citizen science data. J Asia Pac Biodiversity 12(3):369–375

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Razak NAA, Sze FH, Ramji MF, Tuen AA, Azlan JM (2019) Distribution and abundance of introduced Common and Javan Mynas in metropolitan and suburban areas of Kuching, Sarawak. Borneo Kukila 16(22):1–9

    Google Scholar 

  • Smythies BE (1999) The birds of Borneo (Fourth edition) revised by Davison GWH. Natural History Publications, Kota Kinabalu

    Google Scholar 

  • Sullivan BL, Aycrigg JL, Barry JH, Bonney RE, Bruns N, Cooper CB, Damoulas T, Dhondt AA, Dietterich T, Farnsworth A, Fink D (2014) The eBird enterprise: An integrated approach to development and application of citizen science. Biol Conserv 169:31–40

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • United Nations Population Division (2010) World urbanization prospects: The 2009 revision. Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations. Available online: http://esa.un.org/unpd/wup/index.htm

  • Van Heezik Y, Smyth A, Mathieu R (2008) Diversity of native and exotic birds across an urban gradient in a New Zealand city. Landsc Urban Plan 87:223–232

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wells DR (2007) The Birds of the Thai-Malay Peninsula: the passerines. Christopher Helm, London

    Google Scholar 

  • Yap CAM, Sodhi NS (2004) Southeast Asian invasive birds: Ecology, impact and management. Ornithol Sci 3:57–67

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yap CA-M, Sodhi NS, Brook BW (2002) Roost Characteristics of Invasive Mynas in Singapore. J Wildl Manage 66:1118–1127

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

We thank the numerous contributors to eBird, including the observers, project team, dan data reviewers.

Funding

This study was funded by the Fundamental Research Grant Scheme (FRGS), Ministry of.Higher Education Malaysia (MOHE), under grant FRGS/1/2020/STG03/UKM/02/5.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

FNA, NAI and UNS retrieved the ebird data. MSM and SMN conceptualized the study design. FNA, KZA and MSM analysed the data. FNA and MSM led the manuscript writing. The authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Mohammad Saiful Mansor.

Ethics declarations

Ethics approval and consent to participate

Not applicable.

Consent for publication

Not applicable.

Conflict of interest

The authors testified that there is no competing interest.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Arazmi, F.N., Ismail, N.A., Daud, U.N.S. et al. Spread of the invasive Javan myna along an urban–suburban gradient in Peninsular Malaysia. Urban Ecosyst 25, 1007–1014 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11252-022-01216-9

Download citation

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11252-022-01216-9

Keywords

  • Invasive species
  • Myna
  • Peninsular Malaysia
  • Spread rate
  • Urban area