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Table 1 Summary of landscape variables determined for three spatial scales, showing the median values for sites at three distances from large urban areas. Numbers in bold are significantly different between urban distance bands (Kruskal–Wallis tests); superscript letters denote post hoc groupings

From: Effects of urbanisation and landscape heterogeneity mediated by feeding guild and body size in a community of coprophilous beetles

  250 m 500 m 1 km
Urban Fringe Rural Urban Fringe Rural Urban Fringe Rural
Composition (ha) MANMADE (ha) 3.4a 0.5b 0.5b 18.7a 3.3b 2.2b 85.8a 25.2b 10.4b
GARDEN (ha) 3.0a 0.4b 0.0b 20.8a 1.5b 1.2b 99.8a 13.6b 9.9b
WOODED (ha) 2.7 5.3 5.0 5.5a 9.9ab 16.7b 20.9a 35.7a 60.7b
SCRUB (ha) 2.3 0.5 1.6 4.1 4.1 5.9 12.2 13.0 23.3
OPEN (ha) 0.4 0.2 0.3 0.8 2.0 1.5 5.0 7.1 6.6
WATER (m2/ha) 433 347 86 0.2 0.3 0.4 2.6 1.9 1.2
IMPGRASS (ha) 4.6 5.0 3.6 11.1 21.2 13.8 54.0a 106.7b 82.7b
ARABLE (ha) 0.0a 1.7b 0.1ab 0.0a 18.6b 9.3b 0.0a 74.5b 73.8b
Configuration DUNGAV 0.7 3.5 2.5 3.0a 15.1b 12.1b 15.0a 66.5b 54.7b
WOPATCH (ha) 0.7 15.8 16.3 2.8b 3.6b 19.9a 2.9b 4.8b 14.6a
SCPATCH (ha) 0.6 0.3 0.8 0.9 1.4 2.2 2.0 1.5 2.1
OPPATCH (m2/ha) 126 0 0 126 0.4 0.3 1.5 11.0 1.1
WOODDIS (m) 59 36 48 97a 82ab 63b 146a 113ab 75b
SCRUBDIS (m) 76 99 83 114 128 125 155 156 143
OPENDIS (m) 274 288 383 386 338 353 665 466 352
GARSIZE (m2) 147 332 0 168a 1062b 1440b 187a 538b 1425c