Skip to main content

Tree-circles spontaneous vegetation over a long climatic gradient

Abstract

Urban flora varies between urban habitats within a city and between cities. We used a particular urban habitat - tree-circles to compare floristic differences between urban agglomerations along a long climatic gradient on a continental scale. We recorded flora of this unique habitat in seven West Balkan cities and compared it to seven cities from Western and Central Europe. On average, 91 species were found on tree-circles in every city in the Balkans (compared to 81 in continental Europe). Climate was the most important factor influencing species composition. Western and Central European tree-circles floras are much more uniform and homogeneous than Balkan ones, which have richer species pools.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6

References

  • Block M (2004) Natur der kleinen Räume. Wildwuchs auf Erlanger Baumscheiben Mitteilungen der Fränkischen Geographischen Gesellschaft 50(51):103–114

    Google Scholar 

  • Braun-Blanquet J (1964) Pflanzensoziologie. Grundzüge der Vegetationskunde. 3 edn. Springer Verlag, Wien

  • Carrus G et al (2015) Go greener, feel better? The positive effects of biodiversity on the well-being of individuals visiting urban and peri-urban green areas Landscape Urban Plan 134:221–228

    Google Scholar 

  • Celesti Grapow L, Blasi C (1998) A comparison of the urban flora of different phytoclimatic regions in Italy. Global Ecology & Biogeography Letters 7:367–378. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1466-822x.1998.00304.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Čeplová N, Kalusová V, Lososová Z (2017) Effects of settlement size, urban heat island and habitat type on urban plant biodiversity. Landscape urban plan 159:15–22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2016.11.004

  • Chao A, Ma KH, Hsieh TC (2016) iNEXT (iNterpolation and EXTrapolation) online. Software for Interpolation and Extrapolation of Species Diversity. Program and User’s Guide published at http://chao.stat.nthu.edu.tw/wordpress/software_download/

  • Diekmann M (2003) Species indicator values as an important tool in applied plant ecology - a review. Basic and applied ecology 4:493–506

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ellenberg H, Weber HE, Düll R, Wirth V, Werner W, Paulißen D (1992) Zeigerwerte von Pflanzen in Mitteleuropa vol 18. Scripta Geobotanica, 2. edn. Erich Goltze, Göttingen

  • Euro+Med (2006) Euro+Med PlantBase - the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity. http://ww2.bgbm.org/EuroPlusMed. Accessed 6.9.2018 2018

  • Fanelli G, Tescarollo P, Testi A (2006) Ecological indicators applied to urban and suburban floras. Ecological Indicators 6:444–457. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2005.06.002

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Forman RTT (2014) Urban ecology: science of cities. Cambridge University Press

  • Holzner W (1978) Weed species and weed communities. Vegetatio 38:13–20

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ise MS (2006) Pflanzenvielfalt in Städten zwischen Nutzung, Pflege und Verbrachung. Am Beispiel der Baumscheiben- und Grabvegetation in zwolf deutschen Städten. Friedrich-Alexander-Universität

  • Jackowiak B (2011) Poznan. In: Kelcey JG, Müller N (eds) Plants and Habitats of European Cities. Springer Science+Business Media, pp 363–405. doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-89684-7_11

  • Kühn I, Klotz S (2006) Urbanization and homogenization - Comparing the floras of urban and rural areas in Germany. Biological Conservation 127:292–300

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lepš J, Šmilauer P (2003) Multivariate analysis of ecological data using CANOCO. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Lososová Z, Chytrý M, Cimalová Š, Kropáč Z, Otýpková Z, Pyšek P, Tichý L (2004) Weed vegetation of arable land in Central Europe: Gradients of diversity and species composition. Journal of Vegetation Science 15:415–422

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lososová Z et al (2012a) Native and alien floras in urban habitats: a comparison across 32 cities of Central Europe. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 21:545–555

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lososová Z et al (2012b) Biotic homogenization of central European urban floras depends on residence time of alien species and habitat types. Biol Conserv 145:179–184

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lososová Z et al (2011) Diversity of central European urban biota: effects of human-made habitat types on plants and land snails. Journal of biogeography 38:1152–1163. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2699.2011.02475.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Maurel N, Pellegrini P, Machon N, Cheptou PO, Lizet B (2013) Trame verte: les pieds d’arbres á la croiseé des chemins [greenways: tree pits at the crossroads]. In: Clergeau P, Blanc N (eds) Tramesvertes urbaines. Le Moniteur, pp 169–187

  • Mazerolle MJ, Villard M (1999) Patch characteristics and landscap econtext as predictors of species presence and abundance: a review. Ecoscience 6:117–124

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • McKinney ML, Lockwood JL (1999) Biotic homogenization: a few winners replacing many losers in the next mass extinction. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 14:450–453

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Merkel AOP-A (2018) Climate-Data.org. http://en.climate-data.org/

  • Mucina L et al (2016) Vegetation of Europe: hierarchical floristic classification system of plant, lichen, and algal communities. Applied vegetation science 19:3–264

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Muratet A, Porcher E, Devictor V, Arnal G, Moret J, Wright S, Machon N (2008) Evaluation of floristic diversity in urban areas as a basis for habitat management. Applied vegetation science 11:451–460. https://doi.org/10.3170/2008-7-18530

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Omar M, Al Sayed N, Barré K, Halwani J, Machon N (2018) Drivers of the distribution of spontaneous plant communities and species within urban tree bases. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 35:174–191. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2018.08.018

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pellegrini P, Baudry S (2014) Streets as new places to bring together both humans and plants: examples from Paris and Montpellier (France). Social & Cultural Geography 15:871–900. https://doi.org/10.1080/14649365.2014.974067

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pignatti S (1982) Flora d'Italia vol 1–3. Edagricole, Bologna

    Google Scholar 

  • Pignatti S (2005) Valori di bioindicazione delle piante vascolari della flora d’Italia Braun-Blanquetia 39:1-97

  • Pyšek P (1993) Factors affecting the diversity of flora and vegetation in central European settlements. Vegetatio 106:89–100

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pyšek P (1995) Approaches to studying spontaneous settlement flora and vegetation in Central Europe: a review. In: Sukopp H, Numata M, Huber A (eds) Urban ecology as a basis of urban planning. SPB Academic Publishing, Amsterdam, pp 23–39

    Google Scholar 

  • R Development Core Team (2012) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna

    Google Scholar 

  • Schulte W, Voggenreiter V (1990) Zur Fora und Vegetation städtischer Baumscheiben Natur und Landschaft 65:591–596

  • Shwartz A, Muratet A, Simon L, Julliard R (2013) Local and management variables outweigh landscape effects in enhancing the diversity of different taxa in a big metropolis. Biological Conservation 157:285–292. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2012.09.009

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Šilc U, Vrbničanin S, Božić D, Čarni A, Stevanovic ZD (2009) Weed vegetation in the north-western Balkans: diversity and species composition. Weed Research 49:602–612. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3180.2009.00726.x

  • StatSoft I (2011) STATISTICA (data analysis software system), version 10.0. www.statsoft.com

  • Stešević D, Caković D, Jovanović S (2014) The urban Flora of Podgorica (Montenegro, SE Europe): annotated checklist. Distribution Atlas, Habitats And Life-Forms, Taxonomic, Phytogeographical And Ecological Analysis Ecologia Montenegrina Supplementum 1:1–171

    Google Scholar 

  • Sukopp H (2002) On the early history of urban ecology in Europe. Preslia 74:373–393

    Google Scholar 

  • Ter Braak JFC, Šmilauer P (2012) Canoco reference manual and user's guide: software for ordination, version 5.0. Microcomputer power, Ithaca, New York

  • Ward K, Lauf S, Kleinschmit B, Endlicher W (2016) Heat waves and urban heat islands in Europe: A review of relevant drivers Science of The Total Environment 569-570:527–539 doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.06.119

  • Wittig R (1995) Überblick über die Baumscheibenvegetation sechs mitteleuropäischer Städte Schriftenreihe f Vegetationskunde 27:131-238

  • Wittig R (2008) Siedlungsvegetation. Ulmer Verlag, Stuttgart

    Google Scholar 

  • Wittig R, Becker U (2010) The spontaneous flora around street trees in cities—a striking example for the worldwide homogenization of the flora of urban habitats flora - morphology. Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants 205:704–709. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.flora.2009.09.001

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

We thank R. Wittig and U. Becker for providing us original data from Northern Europe. Martin Cregeen kindly checked our English. The research was partly financed by the Slovenian Research Agency (ARRS) through a research program (P1-0236) and bilateral project with Montenegro (BI-ME/16-17-018).

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to U. Šilc.

Electronic supplementary material

ESM 1

(XLSX 28 kb)

ESM 2

(XLSX 11 kb)

ESM 3

(XLSX 10 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Šilc, U., Küzmič, F., Aćić, S. et al. Tree-circles spontaneous vegetation over a long climatic gradient. Urban Ecosyst 23, 995–1004 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11252-020-00987-3

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11252-020-00987-3

Keywords

  • Tree-circles
  • Baumscheiben
  • Urban habitat
  • Balkan
  • Vegetation
  • Homogenization