Skip to main content

Carabidae assemblages in pine forests with different recreation regimes within and outside a megalopolis

Abstract

The expansion of cities highlights the need for studies of the biodiversity on urban territories and factors affecting the structure and functioning of communities. In 2010–2011, we compared the abundance and diversity of carabid beetles in pine forests of natural origin within the Russian megalopolis Yekaterinburg and outside. To estimate the effects of recreation (R+: trampling, soil compaction, eutrophication) and other urbanization factors (U+: pollution, habitat fragmentation, adventive species), we selected 12 urban and non-urban forest sites with contrasting recreation regimes (U + R+, U + R−, U − R+, U − R−; three sites in each combination). We hypothesized that both urbanization and recreation decrease the abundance and diversity of carabids; the combination of two factors enhances negative effects. The total activity density of carabids and the abundances of all ecological groups increased in urban forests compared to non-urban ones. In urban forests, the Simpson dominance decreased, while Shannon diversity, total species richness, and mean number of species per site increased. The most abundant species in all forests were Pterostichus oblongopunctatus, P. mannerheimii, and P. magus, while Carabus nemoralis was abundant in urban forests only. Proportion (by the number of individuals) of forest species was lower and that of generalists and large-sized species higher in urban forests. High recreation load resulted in lower total abundance and diversity of ground beetles. Negative effect of recreation load on carabids leveled positive effect of urbanization: both abundance and diversity of ground beetles were lower at urban sites with intense recreational use compared to forest sites closed for townspeople.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4

References

  • Aleksanov VV, Alexeev SC, Sionova MN (2010) Urbanization effects on the ecological groups and life forms of the ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) in the broadleaved deciduous forests (Kaluga region, Russia). Reg Environ Iss 5:69–77 [in Russian]

    Google Scholar 

  • Antvogel H, Bonn A (2001) Environmental parameters and microspatial distribution of insects: a case study of carabids in an alluvial forest. Ecography 24:470–482. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0587.2001.tb00482.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Babenko AS, Eremeeva NI (2007) Peculiarities of carabid beetle populations in Siberian cities. Vestn Tomsk Gos Univ 1:5–17 in Russian]

    Google Scholar 

  • Belskaya EA, Zolotarev MP (2009) Seasonal dynamics of the activity of ground-dwelling arthropods (Carabidae, Staphylinidae, Aranei, Opiliones) in forest ecosystems subjected to emissions from a copper smelter. Scientific notes of the NTSSPA: Natural Sciences. In: Zhuikova TV (ed) . NTSSPA, Nizhny Tagil, pp 107–112 [in Russian]

    Google Scholar 

  • Bergman IE, Vorobeichik EL, Ermakov AI (2017) The effect of megalopolis environment on the feeding activity of soil saprophages in urban forests. Eurasian Soil Sci 50:106–117. https://doi.org/10.1134/S1064229317010021

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bokachev MR, Vlasov IA, Getmanskaya OV et al (2012) State report on the state and protection of environment in Sverdlovsk oblast in 2011. UMC UPI, Yekaterinburg [in Russian]

    Google Scholar 

  • Burkman CE, Gardiner MM (2014) Urban greenspace composition and landscape context influence natural enemy community composition and function. Biol Control 75:58–67. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocontrol.2014.02.015

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Elagin GN (2012) Chronicle of the development of Yekaterinburg. TATLIN, Yekaterinburg, pp 1702–2012 [in Russian]

    Google Scholar 

  • Elek Z, Lövei GL (2007) Patterns in ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) assemblages along an urbanization gradient in Denmark. Acta Oecol 32:104–111. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actao.2007.03.008

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ermakov AI, Vorobeichik EL (2013) Soil macrofauna of forest ecosystems in a large industrial city. Euroasian Entomol J 12:519–528. https://doi.org/10.1134/S1064229317010021

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Feoktistov VF (2000) Bioindicator estimation of carabid complexes in conditions of urban landscapes // Izv RAS SamSC 13:319–323. [in Russian]

  • Fox J, Weisberg S (2010) An R companion to applied regression. SAGE Publications, California

    Google Scholar 

  • Gotelli NJ, Chao A (2013) Measuring and estimating species richness, species diversity, and biotic similarity from sampling data. In: Levin SA (ed) Encyclopedia of biodiversity, 2nd edn, vol 5. Academic Press, Waltham, pp 195–211

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Grandchamp A-C, Niemelä J, Kotze DJ (2000) The effects of trampling on assemblages of ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) in urban forests in Helsinki, Finland. Urban Ecosyst 4:321–332. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1015707916116

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gryuntal SY, Butovskiy RO (1997) Carabids (Coleoptera, Carabidae) as indicators of the recreational on forest ecosystems. Entomol Rev 76:547–554 [in Russian]

    Google Scholar 

  • Gryuntal SY, Sergeeva TK (1994) Relationship between the feeding habits of forest litter ground beetles (Coeloptera, Carabidae) and the composition and structure of the soil-inhabiting population in Moscow area forests. Entomol Rev 73:44–56

  • Guillemain M, Loreau M, Daufresne T (1997) Relationships between the regional distribution of carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) and the abundance of their potential prey. Acta Oecol 18:465–483. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1146-609X(97)80035-5

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hammer Ø, Harper DAT, Ryan PD (2001) PAST: paleontological statistics software package for education and data analysis. Palaeontol Electron 4:9 http://folk.uio.no/ohammer/past. Accessed 19 March 2018

    Google Scholar 

  • Heessen HJL (1980) Egg production of Pterostichus oblongopunctatus (Fabricius) (Col., Carabidae) and Philonthus decorus (Gravenhorst) (Col., Staphylinidae). Neth J Zool 30:35–53

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Heessen HJL, Brunsting AM (1981) Mortality of larvae of Pterostichus oblongopunctatus (Fabricius) Col., Carabidae and Philonthus decorus (Gravenhorst) (Col., Staphylinidae). Neth J Zool 31:729–745

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hill MO (1973) Diversity and evenness: a unifying notation and its consequences. Ecology 54:427–432. https://doi.org/10.2307/1934352

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ishitani M, Kotze DJ, Niemelä J (2003) Changes in carabid beetle assemblages across an urban rural gradient in Japan. Ecography 26:481–489. https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0587.2003.03436.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jones EL, Leather SR (2012) Invertebrates in urban areas: a review. Eur J Entomol 109:463–478. https://doi.org/10.14411/eje.2012.060

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Koivula M, Punttila P, Haila Y, Niemelä J (1999) Leaf litter and the small-scale distribution of carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) in the boreal forest. Ecography 22:424–435. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0587.1999.tb00579.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kozyrev AV (1983) On species composition and ecology of ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) of anthropogenic landscapes of the Middle Urals. In: The fauna and ecology of insects of the Urals. USC Acad Sci USSR, Sverdlovsk, pp 24–25 [in Russian]

  • Kozyrev AV (1991) Species composition and distribution of ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) in anthropogenic landscapes of Sverdlovsk. In: ecological groups of ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) in natural and anthropogenic landscapes of the Urals. UB of AS of USSR, Sverdlovsk, pp 30–38 [in Russian]

    Google Scholar 

  • Kryzhanovskij OL (1965) Fam. Carabidae – ground beetles. In: Guryeva EL, OL &K (eds) Key to insects of the European USSR. Coleoptera and Strepsiptera. Nauka, Moscow, pp 31–96 in Russian

  • Kryzhanovskij OL, Belousov IA, Kabak II, Kataev BM, Makarov KV, Shilenkov VG (1995) A checklist of the ground-beetles of Russia and adjacent lands (Insecta, Coleoptera, Carabidae). Pentsoft, Sofia-Moscow

    Google Scholar 

  • Lehvävirta S, Kotze DJ, Niemele J, Mäntysaar M, O’Hara B (2006) Effects of fragmentation and trampling on carabid beetle assemblages in urban woodlands in Helsinki, Finland. Urban Ecosyst 9:13–26. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11252-006-5526-3

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Long JS, Ervin LH (2000) Using heteroscedasticity consistent standard errors in the linear regression model. Am Stat 54:217–224. https://doi.org/10.1080/00031305.2000.10474549

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Loreau M (1988) Determinants of the seasonal pattern in the niche structure of a forest carabid community. Pedobiologia 31:75–87

    Google Scholar 

  • Luff ML, Eyre MD, Rushton SP (1989) Classification and ordination of habitats of ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) in North-East England. J Biogeography 16:121–130. https://doi.org/10.2307/2845086

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Magura T (2002) Carabids and forest edge: spatial pattern and edge effect. For Ecol Manag 157:23–37. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1127(00)00654-X

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Magura T, Tóthmérész B, Molnár T (2004) Changes in carabid assemblages along an urbanisation gradient in the city of Debrecen, Hungary. Landsc Ecol 19:747–759. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-005-1128-4

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Magura T, Gábor LL, Tóthmérész B (2008) Time-consistent rearrangement of carabid beetle assemblages by an urbanisation gradient in Hungary. Acta Oecol 34:233–243. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actao.2008.05.010

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Martinson HM, Raupp MJ (2013) A meta-analysis of the effects of urbanization on ground beetle communities. Ecosphere 4:1–24. https://doi.org/10.1890/ES12-00262.1

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • McKinney ML (2008) Effects of urbanization on species richness: a review of plants and animals. Urban Ecosyst 11:161–176. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11252-007-0045-4

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mikryukov VS (2014) Shiny application to conduct heteroscedasticity consistent ANOVA [in Russian]. Zenodo. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.293770

  • Niemelä J, Kotze DJ (2009) Carabid beetle assemblages along urban to rural gradients: a review. Landsc Urban Plan 92:65–71. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2009.05.016

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Niemelä J, Haila Y, Halme E, Lahti T, Pajunen T, Punttila P (1988) The distribution of carabid beetles in fragments of old coniferous taiga and adjacent managed forest. Ann Zool Fenn 25:107–119

    Google Scholar 

  • Niemelä J, Kotze DJ, Venn S, Penev L, Stoyanov I, Spence J, Hartley D, de Oca EM (2002) Carabid beetle assemblages (Coleoptera, Carabidae) across urban-rural gradients: an international comparison. Landsc Ecol 17:387–401. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1021270121630

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • R Core Team (2017) R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna URL http://www.R-project.org. Accessed 8 Aug 2017

  • Sadler JP, Small EC, Fiszpan H, Telfer MG, Niemelä J (2006) Investigating environmental variation and landscape characteristics of an urban-rural gradient using woodland carabid assemblages. J Biogeogr 33:1126–1138. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2699.2006.01476.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Semenova OV (2008) Ecology of ground beetles in an industrial city. Russ J Ecol 39:444–450. https://doi.org/10.1134/S1067413608060106

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sergeeva TK, Kryuchkova EE (1990) Adaptive peculiarities of seasonal rhythms of trophic activity in predatory Carabidae. Izv AN SSSR Biol+ 5:759–768 [in Russian]

    Google Scholar 

  • Sergeeva TK, Gryuntal SY (1990) Relationships of ground beetles, Pterostichus species, with their food resources. Zool Zh 69:58–67

  • Sharova IK, Bulokhova NA (1995) Dynamics of the ecological structure of the ground beetle fauna (Coleoptera, Carabidae) in meadow communities under the tffect of anthropogenic factors. In: the fauna and ecology of ground beetles in the meadows of southwestern Russia. Bryansk Gos Ped Univ, Bryansk, pp 38–45 [in Russian]

    Google Scholar 

  • Shavnin SA, Galako VA, Menschikov SL, Vlasenko VE, Maruschak VN (2010) Forest ecosystems vitality on the urbanized territory of Yekaterinburg. Izvestia of the Orenburg State Agrarian University 27:37–41. [in Russian]

  • Smorkalov IA, Vorobeichik EL (2015) The impact of a large industrial city on the soil respiration in forest ecosystems. Eurasian Soil Sci 48:106–114. https://doi.org/10.1134/S1064229315010147

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sota T (1985) Limitation of reproduction by feeding condition in a carabid beetle, Carabus yaconinus. Res Popul Ecol 27:171–184. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02515489

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Striganova BR (1980) Feeding of soil Saprophages. Nauka, Moscow [in Russian

    Google Scholar 

  • Sturman VI (2008) Natural and technogenic factors of atmospheric air pollution in Russian cities. Vestn Udmurt Gos Univ, Biol. Nauki Zemle 2:15–29. [in Russian]

  • Thiele H-U (1977) Carabid beetles in their environments: zoophysiology and ecology. Springer-Verlag, Berlin

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Tóthmérész B, Máthé I, Balázs E, Magura T (2011) Responses of carabid beetles to urbanization in Transylvania (Romania). Landsc Urban Plan 101:330–337. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2011.02.038

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Van Dijk TS (1994) On the relationship between food, reproduction and survival of two carabid beetles: Calathus melanocephalus and Pterostichus versicolor. Ecol Entomol 19:263–270. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2311.1994.tb00418.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Venn SJ, Kotze DJ, Niemelä J (2003) Urbanization effects on carabid diversity in boreal forests. Eur J Entomol 100:73–80 https://www.eje.cz/pdfs/eje/2003/01/15.pdf

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Veselkin DV, Kaigorodova SY (2013) Relationship between agrochemical roperties of soils in urban forests and structure of endomycorrhiza of scots pine. Agrokhimiya 11:63–71 [in Russian]

    Google Scholar 

  • Voronin AG (1999) Fauna and complexes of ground beetles (Coleoptera, Trachypachidae, Carabidae) of the forest zone of the middle Urals (ecological and zoogeographical analysis). Perm State University Publishing, Perm [in Russian]

    Google Scholar 

  • Voronin AG, Esyunin SL (2005) Diversity of ground-beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) in the middle Urals: main trends and their determining factors. Euroasian Entomol J 4:107–116

    Google Scholar 

  • Walsh PJ, Day KR, Leather SR, Smith A (1993) The influence of soil type and pine species on the carabid community of a plantation forest with a history of pine beauty moth infestation. Forestry 66:135–146. https://doi.org/10.1093/forestry/66.2.135

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zinovyev EV (1996) Herpetobiont beetles of Ekaterinburg forest parks. In: Ecological research in the Urals. Kostanay State University Publishing, Kostanay, pp 60–72 [in Russian]

    Google Scholar 

  • Zinovyev EV (2016) Materials for the study of the local fauna of ground beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera, Carabidae) of the surroundings of the Verkhnemakarovo settlement (Ekaterinburg). Fauna Urals Siberia 1:33–44

    Google Scholar 

  • Zinovyev EV, Parkhachev AA (2017) Properties of the elementary beetle fauna (Insecta: Coleoptera) in a part of the Ekaterinburg urban area. Fauna Urals Siberia 1:63–68

    Google Scholar 

  • Zolotarev MP, Belskaya EA (2015) Ground-dwelling invertebrates in a large industrial city: differentiation of recreation and urbanization effects. Contemp Probl Ecol 8:83–90. https://doi.org/10.1134/S1995425515010163

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zolotareva NV, Podgaevskaya EN, Shavnin SA (2012) Changes of structure of upper soil cover of pine forests in conditions of large industrial city. Izv Orenb Gos Agrar Univ 5:218–221 [in Russian]

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

We thank E.L. Vorobeichik for the concept of this study, N.V. Zolotareva for the description of study sites, and anonymous referees for valuable comments on the manuscript. The study was supported by the State Contract of the Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences (sampling and species identification) and by the Integrated Research Program of the Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, project no. 18-4-4-24 (basic analyses and preparation of the manuscript). Language editing was provided by an anonymous proofreader from Proof-Reading-Service.com.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Elena Belskaya.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Electronic supplementary material

ESM 1

(DOCX 18 kb)

ESM 2

(DOCX 17 kb)

ESM 3

(DOC 65 kb)

ESM 4

(DOC 47 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Belskaya, E., Zolotarev, M. & Zinovyev, E. Carabidae assemblages in pine forests with different recreation regimes within and outside a megalopolis. Urban Ecosyst 23, 27–38 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11252-019-00904-3

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11252-019-00904-3

Keywords

  • Middle Urals
  • Urbanization
  • Recreation
  • Abundance
  • Diversity