Advertisement

Urban Ecosystems

, Volume 17, Issue 4, pp 1095–1117 | Cite as

A comparative study of the water budgets of lawns under three management scenarios

  • Neeta S. Bijoor
  • Diane E. Pataki
  • Darren Haver
  • James S. Famiglietti
Article

Abstract

The fate of irrigation in urban ecosystems is highly uncertain, due to uncertainties in urban ecohydrology. We compared irrigation rates, soil moisture, evapotranspiration (ET), stomatal conductance, and water budgets of landscape ecosystems managed with different turfgrass species and irrigation technologies. The “Typical” landscape had a cool-season fescue and was irrigated by an automatic timer. The “Alternative1” landscape had a warm-season paspalum and a “smart” soil moisture sensor-based irrigation system. The “Alternative2” landscape had a cool-season native sedge and a “smart” weather station-based drip irrigation system. ET was measured with a portable closed chamber and modeled using a Penman-Monteith approach, and the two methods agreed well. The water applied to the Alternative1 was 54 % less than the water applied to the Typical landscape, and the water applied to the Alternative2 was 24 % less. Soil moisture was similar in the Typical and Alternative2, while Alternative1 was drier in spring. The stomatal conductance of sedge was lower than the other two species, but its ET was not lower due to higher leaf area. Irrigation efficiencies (ET/applied irrigation) were 57 - 58 %, 86 – 97 %, and 78 - 80 % for the Typical, Alternative1, and Alternative2 landscapes, respectively. Runoff was less than 2 % in each landscape, and excess irrigation primarily drained below the root zone. Differences in irrigation efficiency between landscapes were due mainly to irrigation application, which varied more than species water use. Smart irrigation systems provided substantial water savings relative to a timer-based system, and prevented significant drainage losses. The utilization of smart sensors was more important than the choice of turfgrass species for irrigation efficiency.

Keywords

Urban water budget Evapotranspiration Turfgrass Soil moisture Urban irrigation 

Notes

Acknowledgement

We thank Tammy Majcherek, Joanne Watkins, Nandini Bijoor, Gabriel Giannini, Eric Sun, and Amit Masurkar for assistance in the field and lab. We thank two anonymous reviewers for providing helpful comments on earlier drafts of the manuscript. This research was supported by the National Science Foundation (HSD 0624177, BCS 0948914, and a Graduate Fellowship) and by the California Energy Commission PIER program (PIR-080005).

References

  1. Alig RJ, Kline JD, Lichtenstein M (2004) Urbanization on the US landscape: looking ahead in the 21st century. Landsc Urban Plan 69(2–3):219–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen RK, Pereira LS, Raes D, Smith M (1998) Crop Evapotranspiration: Guide lines for computing crop water requirements. Food and Agricultural Organization’s version that is described in Irrigation and Drainage Paper No 56. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  3. Allen RG, Pereira LS, Howell TA, Jensen ME (2011) Evapotranspiration information reporting: I factors governing measurement accuracy. Agric Water Manag 98(6):899–920. doi: 10.1016/j.agwat.2010.12.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Balogh J, Nagy Z, Foti S, Pinter K, Czobel S, Peli ER, Acosta M, Marek MV, Csintalan Z, Tuba Z (2007) Comparison of CO2 and H2O fluxes over grassland vegetations measured by the eddy-covariance technique and by open system chamber. Photosynthetica 45(2):288–292. doi: 10.1007/s11099-007-0046-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barnes JR (1977) Analysis of residential lawn water use. Masters Abstracts International 45 (3)Google Scholar
  6. Baum-Haley M (2011) Irrigation conservation technology effectiveness and behavior of the domestic irrigator. Dissertation, University of FloridaGoogle Scholar
  7. Baum-Haley M, Dukes MD (2012) Validation of landscape irrigation reduction with soil moisture sensor irrigation controllers. J Irrig Drain Eng 138(2):135–144. doi: 10.1061/(asce)ir.1943-4774.0000391 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Baum-Haley M, Dukes MD, Miller GL (2007) Residential irrigation water use in Central Florida. J Irrig Drain Eng 133(5):427–434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bijoor NS, Czimczik CI, Pataki DE, Billings SA (2008) Effects of temperature and fertilization on nitrogen cycling and community composition of an urban lawn. Glob Chang Biol 14(9):2119–2131. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2008.01617.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Burkart S, Manderscheid R, Weigel H-J (2007) Design and performance of a portable gas exchange chamber system for CO2- and H2O-flux measurements in crop canopies. Environ Exp Bot 61(1):25–34. doi: 10.1016/j.envexpbot.2007.02.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Busch J (2001) Characteristic values of key ecophysiologic parameters in the genus Carex. Flora 196:405–430Google Scholar
  12. Busch J, Lösch R (1998) Stomatal behaviour and gas exchange of Sedges (Carex spp.) under different soil moisture regimes. Phys Chem Earth 23(4):443–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cardenas-Lailhacar B, Dukes MD (2012) Soil moisture sensor landscape irrigation controllers: a review of multi-study results and future implications. Trans ASABE 55(2):581–590CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Carey RO, Hochmuth GJ, Martinez CJ, Boyer TH, Nair VD, Dukes MD, Toor GS, Shober AL, Cisar JL, Trenholm LE, Sartain JB (2012) A review of turfgrass fertilizer management practices: implications for urban water quality. HortTechnology 22(3):280–291Google Scholar
  15. Centinari M, Poni S, Filippetti I, Magnanini E, Intrieri C (2009) Evaluation of an open portable chamber system for measuring cover crop water use in a vineyard and comparison with a mini-lysimeter approach. Agric For Meteorol 149(11):1975–1982. doi: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2009.07.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cook EM, Hall SJ, Larson KL (2012) Residential landscapes as social-ecological systems: a synthesis of multi-scalar interactions between people and their home environment. Urban Ecosyst 15(1):19–52. doi: 10.1007/s11252-011-0197-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Daniels S (1997) The wild lawn handbook: alternatives to the traditional front lawn. Wiley Publishing, Inc., HobokenGoogle Scholar
  18. Davis SL, Dukes MD (2010) Irrigation scheduling performance by evapotranspiration-based controllers. Agric Water Manag 98(1):19–28. doi: 10.1016/j.agwat.2010.07.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Davis SL, Dukes MD, Miller GL (2009) Landscape irrigation by evapotranspiration-based irrigation controllers under dry conditions in Southwest Florida. Agric Water Manag 96(12):1828–1836. doi: 10.1016/j.agwat.2009.08.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Devitt DA, Carstensen K, Morris RL (2008) Residential water savings associated with satellite-based ET irrigation controllers. J Irrig Drain Eng-ASCE 134(1):74–82. doi: 10.1061/(asce)0733-9437(2008)134:1(74) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Diep F (2011) Lawns vs. crops in the continental U.S.: your grassy lawn comes at the cost of high water use. Scienceline, New York UniversityGoogle Scholar
  22. Dugas WA, Reicosky DC, Kiniry JR (1997) Chamber and micrometeorological measurements of CO2 and H2O fluxes for three C4 grasses. Agric For Meteorol 83(1–2):113–133. doi: 10.1016/s0168-1923(96)02346-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dukes MD (2012) Water conservation potential of landscape irrigation smart controllers. Trans ASABE 55(2):563–569CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Feldhake CM, Danielson RE, Butler JD (1983) Turfgrass evapo-transpiration. 1. Factors influencing rate in urban environments. Agron J 75(5):824–830CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Felson AJ, Pickett STA (2005) Designed experiments: new approaches to studying urban ecosystems. Front Ecol Environ 3(10):549––556. doi: 10.1890/1540-9295(2005)003[0549:denats]2.0.co;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gan J, Bondarenko S, Oki L, Haver D, Li JX (2012) Occurrence of Fipronil and Its Biologically Active Derivatives in Urban Residential Runoff. Environ Sci Technol 46(3):1489–1495. doi: 10.1021/es202904x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gleick PH, Haasz D, Henges-Jeck C, Srinivasan V, Wolff G, Kao Cushing K, Mann A (2003) Waste not, want not: the potential for urban water conservation in California. Pacific Institute, OaklandGoogle Scholar
  28. Granier A, Breda N (1996) Modelling canopy conductance and stand transpiration of an oak forest from sap flow measurements. Ann Des Sci For 53(2–3):537–546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Grau A (1995) A closed chamber technique for field measurement of gas exchange of forage canopies. N Z J Agric Res 38(1):71–77. doi: 10.1080/00288233.1995.9513105 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Huang B, Fry JD (2000) Turfgrass evapotranspiration. J Crop Prod 2(2):317–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Huang B, Duncan RR, Carrow RN (1997) Drought-resistance mechanisms of seven warm-season turfgrasses under surface soil drying: II. Root aspects. Crop Sci 37:1863–1869CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hunt T, D. Lessick, J. Berg, J. Weidman, T. Ash, D., Pagano, M. Marian, and A. Bamezai (2001) Residential weather-based irrigation scheduling: evidence from the Irvine “ET controller” study. Irvine, California. http://hydropoint.com/pdfs/studies/Irvine_Ranch_Water_District_Metropolitan_Water_District_1.pdf
  33. Jiang WY, Haver D, Rust M, Gan J (2012) Runoff of pyrethroid insecticides from concrete surfaces following simulated and natural rainfalls. Water Res 46(3):645–652. doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2011.11.023 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Katerji N, Rana G (2006) Modelling evapotranspiration of six irrigated crops under Mediterranean climate conditions. Agric For Meteorol 138(1–4):142–155. doi: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2006.04.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kisekka I, Migliaccio KW, Dukes MD, Schaffer B, Crane JH (2010) Evapotranspiration-based irrigation scheduling and physiological response in a carambola (Averrhoa Carambola l.) orchard. Appl Eng Agric 26(3):373–380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Langensiepen M, Kupisch M, van Wijk MT, Ewert F (2012) Analyzing transient closed chamber effects on canopy gas exchange for optimizing flux calculation timing. Agric For Meteorol 164:61–70. doi: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2012.05.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Lecina S, Martı́nez-Cob A, Pérez PJ, Villalobos FJ, Baselga JJ (2003) Fixed versus variable bulk canopy resistance for reference evapotranspiration estimation using the Penman–Monteith equation under semiarid conditions. Agric Water Manag 60(3):181–198. doi: 10.1016/s0378-3774(02)00174-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lee H (2008) Measurement of turfgrass quality, leaf area index, and aboveground biomass with multi-spectral radiometry. Dissertation, Kansas State UniversityGoogle Scholar
  39. Lee G, Carrow RN, Duncan RR (2004) Photosynthetic responses to salinity stress of halophytic seashore paspalum ecotypes. Plant Sci 166(6):1417–1425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Liang X, Su D, Yin S, Wang Z (2009) Leaf water absorption and desorption functions for three turfgrasses. J Hydrol 376(1–2):243–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Litvak E, Bijoor NS, Pataki DE (2013) Adding trees to irrigated turfgrass lawns may be a water-saving measure in semi-arid environments. Ecohydrology. doi: 10.1002/eco.1458 Google Scholar
  42. Maidment DR (1993) Handbook of Hydrology. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  43. Mayer PW (ed) (2000) Residential End Uses of Water. American Water Works Association Research FoundationGoogle Scholar
  44. Mayer PW, DeOreo WB, Opitz EM, Kiefer JC, Davis WY, Dziegielewski B, Nelson JO (1999) Residential end uses of water. AWWA Research Foundation and American Water Works Association. Denver, ColoradoGoogle Scholar
  45. McCready MS, Dukes MD (2011) Landscape irrigation scheduling efficiency and adequacy by various control technologies. Agric Water Manag 98(4):697–704. doi: 10.1016/j.agwat.2010.11.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. McCready MS, Dukes MD, Miller GL (2009) Water conservation potential of smart irrigation controllers on St Augustinegrass. Agric Water Manag 96(11):1623–1632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. McLean RK, Ranjan R, Klassen G (2000) Spray evaporation losses from sprinkler irrigation systems. Can Agric Eng 42(1):1–8Google Scholar
  48. McLeod MK, Daniel H, Faulkner R, Murison R (2004) Evaluation of an enclosed portable chamber to measure crop and pasture actual evapotranspiration at small scale. Agric Water Manag 67(1):15–34. doi: 10.1016/j.agwat.2003.12.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Meyer JL, Gibeault VA (1986) Turfgrass performance under reduced irrigation. Calif Agric 40(7,8):19–20Google Scholar
  50. Meyer JL, Gibeault VA, Youngner VB (1985) Irrigation of turfgrass below replacement of evapotranspiration as a means of conservation: Determining crop coefficients of turfgrass. In: Lemaire F (ed) Proc of the 5th International Turfgrass Research Conference, Avignon, France, July 1985. INRA Publications, Versailles, pp 357–364Google Scholar
  51. Migliaccio KW, Schaffer B, Crane JH, Davies FS (2010) Plant response to evapotranspiration and soil water sensor irrigation scheduling methods for papaya production in south Florida. Agric Water Manage 97 (10):1452–1460. doi:http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1016/j.agwat.2010.04.012
  52. Milesi C, Running SW, Elvidge CD, Dietz JB, Tuttle BT, Nemani RR (2005) Mapping and modeling the biogeochemical cycling of turf grasses in the United States. Environ Manag 36(3):426–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Monteith JL (1965) Evaporation and environment. Symp Soc Exp Biol 19:205–224PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Mueller J, Eschenroeder A, Diepenbrock W (2009) Through-flow chamber CO2/H2O canopy gas exchange system- Construction, microclimate, errors, and measurements in a barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) field. Agric For Meteorol 149(2):214–229. doi: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2008.08.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Ochoa CG, Fernald AG, Guldan SJ, Shukla MK (2007) Deep percolation and its effects on shallow groundwater level rise following flood irrigation. Trans ASABE 50(1):73–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Pataki DE, McCarthy HR, Litvak E, Pincetl S (2010) Transpiration of urban forests in the Los Angeles metropolitan area. Ecol Appl 21(3):661–677. doi: 10.1890/09-1717.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Pataki DE, Boone CG, Hogue TS, Jenerette GD, McFadden JP, Pincetl S (2011) Socio-ecohydrology and the urban water challenge. Ecohydrology 4(2):341–347. doi: 10.1002/eco.209 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Pauwels VRN, Samson R (2006) Comparison of different methods to measure and model actual evapotranspiration rates for a wet sloping grassland. Agric Water Manag 82(1–2):1–24. doi: 10.1016/j.agwat.2005.06.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Penman H (1948) Natural evaporation from open water, bare soil and grass. Proc R Soc Lond Ser A 193:120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Perez PJ, Lecina S, Castellvi F, Martinez-Cob A, Villalobos FJ (2006) A simple parameterization of bulk canopy resistance from climatic variables for estimating hourly evapotranspiration. Hydrol Process 20(3):515–532. doi: 10.1002/hyp.5919 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Pittenger DR, Shaw DA, Richie WE (2004) Evaluation of weather-sensing landscape irrigation controllers. University of California Cooperative Extension, RiversideGoogle Scholar
  62. Pruitt WO, Doorenbos J (1977) Empirical calibration, a requisite for evapotranspiration formulae based on daily or longer mean climatic data. Int Round Table Conf on Evapotranspiration:Int. Committee on Irrigation and Drainage, Budapest, HungaryGoogle Scholar
  63. Prunty L, Greenland R (1998) Nitrate leaching using two potato-corn N-fertilizer plans on sandy soil (vol 65, pg 1, 1997). Agric Ecosyst Environ 70(2–3):283–284Google Scholar
  64. Rawls WJ, Brakensiek DL, Saxton KE (1982) Estimation of soil-water properties. Trans ASAE 25(5):1316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Robins JG (2010) Cool-season grasses produce more total biomass across the growing season than do warm-season grasses when managed with an applied irrigation gradient. Biomass Bioenergy 34(4):500–505. doi: 10.1016/j.biombioe.2009.12.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Roy JW, Parkin GW, Wagner-Riddle C (2000) Water flow in unsaturated soil below turfgrass: Observations and LEACHM (within EXPRES) predictions. Soil Sci Soc Am J 64(1):86–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Saffigna PG, Keeney DR, Tanner CB (1977) Nitrogen, chloride, and water balance with irrigated russet burbank potatoes in a sandy soil. Agron J 69(2):251–257. doi: 10.2134/agronj1977.00021962006900020014x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Schulze E-D, Beck E, Müller-Hohenstein K (2005) Plant Ecology. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  69. Shi TT, Guan DX, Wu JB, Wang AZ, Jin CJ, Han SJ (2008) Comparison of methods for estimating evapotranspiration rate of dry forest canopy: Eddy covariance, Bowen ratio energy balance, and Penman-Monteith equation. J Geophys Res-Atmos 113(D19):1–15. doi: 10.1029/2008jd010174 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Slavens MR, Petrovic AM (2012) Pesticide fate in sodded kentucky bluegrass lawns in response to irrigation. Acta Agric Scand Sect B-Soil Plant Sci 62:86–95. doi: 10.1080/09064710.2012.685747 Google Scholar
  71. Snyder R, Pruitt W (1985) Estimating reference evapotranspiration with hourly data. Chapter VII, Vol 1, California Irrigation Management Information System Final Report, Land, Air and Water Resources Paper #10013-A. Univ. of California, DavisGoogle Scholar
  72. Stannard DI, Weltz MA (2006) Partitioning evapotranspiration in sparsely vegetated rangeland using a portable chamber. Water Resour Res 42(2):1–13. doi: 10.1029/2005wr004251 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Steduto P, Çetinkökü Ö, Albrizio R, Kanber R (2002) Automated closed-system canopy-chamber for continuous field-crop monitoring of CO2 and H2O fluxes. Agric For Meteorol 111(3):171–186. doi: 10.1016/s0168-1923(02)00023-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Steed JE, DeWald LE (2003) Transplanting sedges (Carex spp.) in southwestern riparian meadows. Restor Ecol 11(2):247–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Swarthout D, Harper E, Judd S, Gonthier D, Shyne R, Stowe T, Bultman T (2009) Measures of leaf-level water-use efficiency in drought stressed endophyte infected and non-infected tall fescue grasses. Environ Exp Bot 66(1):88–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Teitel M, Atias M, Schwartz A, Cohen S (2011) Use of a greenhouse as an open chamber for canopy gas exchange measurements: Methodology and validation. Agric For Meteorol 151(10):1346–1355. doi: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2011.05.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. USBR (2008) U.S. Department of Interior, Bureau of Reclamation. Summary of smart controller water savings studies: literature review of water savings studies for weather and soil moisture based landscape irrigation control devices. Final Technical Memorandum No. 86-68210-SCAO-01Google Scholar
  78. Volk M, Niklaus PA, Korner C (2000) Soil moisture effects determine CO2 responses of grassland species. Oecologia 125(3):380–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. White R, Havlak R, Nations J, Pannkuk T, Thomas J, Chalmers D, Dewey D (2007) How much water is “enough”? Using PET to develop water budgets for residential landscapes.Texas Water Resources Institute. Texas A&M University, College StationGoogle Scholar
  80. Winward AH (1986) Vegetation characteristics of riparian areas. Trans West Sect Wildl Soc 22:98–101Google Scholar
  81. Zapata N, Playán E, Skhiri A, Burguete J (2009) Simulation of a Collective Solid-Set Sprinkler Irrigation Controller for Optimum Water Productivity. J Irrig Drain Eng 135(1):13–24. doi: 10.1061/(asce)0733-9437(2009)135:1(13) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Zhao W, Xu S, Li J, Cui L, Chen Y, Wang J (2008) Effects of foliar application of nitrogen on the photosynthetic performance and growth of two fescue cultivars under heat stress. Biol Plant 52(1):113–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Neeta S. Bijoor
    • 1
    • 2
  • Diane E. Pataki
    • 3
  • Darren Haver
    • 4
  • James S. Famiglietti
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.UC Center for Hydrologic ModelingUniversity of CaliforniaIrvineUSA
  2. 2.Department of Earth System ScienceUniversity of CaliforniaIrvineUSA
  3. 3.Department of BiologyUniversity of UtahSalt Lake CityUSA
  4. 4.University of California Cooperative ExtensionCosta MesaUSA

Personalised recommendations