Skip to main content

Advertisement

Log in

Stormwater basins of the New Jersey coastal plain: Subsidies or sinks for frogs and toads?

  • Published:
Urban Ecosystems Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

Stormwater basins are commonly employed structures designed to mitigate the negative effects of urban runoff. They are ubiquitous in the urbanized landscape; yet the effect of these basins on anurans has only recently been addressed. Stormwater basins have the potential to influence the breeding distribution of anurans by being sources for some species and sinks for others. Our study aims to determine which species benefit from the existence of stormwater basins, which species are negatively impacted, and what variables are the best predictors of these effects. We monitored thirty-six permanently-ponded basins in southern New Jersey for the presence of anuran larvae and calling males by aural surveys, dip-netting and trapping. We assessed fish presence by interviews, visual encounters, dip-netting, and traps. We divided near shore buffer areas into impervious surface and managed or unmanaged categories for both grass and woody vegetation. Two connectivity metrics, distance to canopied corridor and percent of undeveloped upland were analyzed with ArcGIS. Fish were detected in 92% of the basins. Resistance to fish predation distinguished successful species, those with larvae present, from unsuccessful species, those with calling activity but no larval presence. Connectivity to and availability of terrestrial habitat were significant predictors of the breeding species richness at the basins. Number of calling species increased as access to and amount of terrestrial habitat increased. Therefore, design, management, and placement of permanently-ponded basins can impact anuran communities. Additionally, as wet basins are sources for Rana catesbeiana, where bullfrogs are invasive, basins will likely increase propagule pressure.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1

Similar content being viewed by others

Abbreviations

BMPs:

Best Management Practices

PNR:

Pinelands National Reserve

H-L:

Hosmer-Lemeshow

References

  • Adams MJ, Pearl CA, Bury RB (2003) Indirect facilitation of an anuran invasion by non-native fishes. Ecol Lett 6:343–351. doi:10.1046/j.1461-0248.2003.00435.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Adams CE, Lindsey JK, Ash SJ (2006) Urban Wildlife Management. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton

    Google Scholar 

  • Australia E (2002) Introduction to Stormwater Management in Australia.

  • Babbitt KJ, Baber MJ, Tarr TL (2003) Patterns of larval amphibian distribution along a wetland hydroperiod gradient. Can J Zool Rev Can De Zool 81:1539–1552. doi:10.1139/z03-131

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Babbitt KJ, Baber MJ, Brandt LA (2006) The effect of woodland proximity and wetland characteristics on larval anuran assemblages in an agricultural landscape. Can J Zool 84:510–519. doi:10.1139/Z06-020

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Battin J (2004) When Good Animals Love Bad Habitats: Ecological Traps and the Conservation of Animal Populations. Conserv Biol 18:1482–1491. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2004.00417.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bishop C et al (2000a) Contamination and wildlife communities in stormwater detention ponds in Guelph and the Greater Toronto Area, Ontario, 1997 and 1998. Part I. Wildlife communities. Water Qual Res J Can 35:399–435

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Bishop C, Struger J, Shirose L, Dunn L, Campbell G (2000b) Contamination and wildlife communities in stormwater detention ponds in Guelph and the Greater Toronto Area, Ontario, 1997 and 1998. Part II. Contamination and Biological Effects of Contamination. Water Qual Res J Can 35:399–435

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Boone MD, James SM (2003) Interactions of an insecticide, herbicide, and natural stressors in amphibian community mesocosms. Ecol Appl 13:829–841. doi:10.1890/1051-0761(2003)013[0829:IOAIHA]2.0.CO;2

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Boone MD, Semlitsch RD, Little EE, Doyle MC (2007) Multiple stressors in amphibian communities: Effects of chemical contamination, bullfrogs, and fish. Ecol Appl 17:291–301. doi:10.1890/1051-0761(2007)017[0291:MSIACE]2.0.CO;2

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Brand AB, Snodgrass JW (2010) Value of Artificial Habitats for Amphibian Reproduction in Altered Landscapes. Conserv Biol 24:295–301. doi:0.1111/j.1523-1739.2009.01301.x

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Brand A, Snodgrass J, Gallagher M, Casey R, Van Meter R (2010) Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Embryonic and Larval Exposure of Hyla versicolor to Stormwater Pond Sediments. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 58:325–331. doi:10.1007/s00244-009-9373-0

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Breden F (1988) Natural history and ecology of Fowler’s toad, Bufo woodhousei fowleri (Amphibia: Bufonidae), in the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore. Fieldiana: zoology 49

  • Bunnell J, Zampella R (2008) Native Fish and Anuran Assemblages Differ between Impoundments with and without Non-Native Centrarchids and Bullfrogs. Copeia :931–939. doi: 10.1643/CE-07-089

  • Bury BR, Whelan AJ (1984) Ecology and Management of the Bullfrog. Washington, United States Department of the Interior

    Google Scholar 

  • Collins SJ, Russell RW (2009) Toxicity of road salt to Nova Scotia amphibians. Environ Pollut 157:320–324. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2008.06.032

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Crawford JA, Semlitsch RD (2008) Post-disturbance effects of even-aged timber harvest on stream salamanders in Southern Appalachian forests. Anim Conserv 11:369–376. doi:10.1111/j.1469-1795.2008.00191.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cushman SA (2006) Effects of habitat loss and fragmentation on amphibians: A review and prospectus. Biol Conserv 128:231–240. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2005.09.031

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • DayWater (2003) Review of the Use of stormwater BMPs in Europe. In: Catalogue No. 5.1

  • De’ath G, Fabricius KE (2000) Classification and regression trees: A powerful yet simple technique for ecological data analysis. Ecology 81:3178–3192. doi:10.1890/0012-9658(2000)081[3178:CARTAP]2.0.CO;2

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Eigenbrod F, Hecnar SJ, Fahrig L (2008) Accessible habitat: An improved measure of the effects of habitat loss and roads on wildlife populations. Landscape Ecol 23:159–168. doi:10.1007/s10980-007-9174-7

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Elzanowski A, Ciesiolkiewicz J, Kaczor M, Radwanska J, Urban R (2009) Amphibian road mortality in Europe: A meta-analysis with new data from Poland. Eur J Wildl Res 55:33–43. doi:10.1007/s10344-008-0211-x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ficetola FG, De Bernardi F (2004) Amphibians in a human-dominated landscape: The community structure is related to habitat features and isolation. Biol Conserv 119:219–230. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2003.11.004

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • García-Muñoz E, Guerrero F, Parra G (2009) Effects of Copper Sulfate on Growth, Development, and Escape Behavior in <i>Epidalea calamita</i> Embryos and Larvae. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 56:557–565. doi:10.1007/s00244-008-9201-y

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Gardner TA, Barlow J, Peres CA (2007) Paradox, presumption and pitfalls in conservation biology: The importance of habitat change for amphibians and reptiles. Biol Conserv 138:166–179. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2007.04.017

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gibbs JP, Whiteleather KK, Schueler FW (2005) Changes in Frog and Toad Populations over 30 Years in New York State. Ecol Appl 15:1148–1157. doi:10.1890/03-5408

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gray M, Smith L, Leyva R (2004) Influence of agricultural landscape structure on a Southern High Plains, USA, amphibian assemblage. Landscape Ecol 19:719–729. doi:10.1007/s10980-005-1129-3

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gregory JH, Dukes MD, Jones PH, Miller GL (2006) Effect of urban soil compaction on infiltration rate. J Soil Water Conserv 61:117–124

    Google Scholar 

  • Grubb J (1973) Olfactory orientation in Bufo woodhousei fowleri, Pseudacris clarki and Pseudacris streckeri. Anim Behav 21:726

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Grubb J (1975) Olfactory orientation in southern leopard frogs, Rana utricularia. Herpetologica 31:219–221

    Google Scholar 

  • Guerry AD, Hunter ML (2002) Amphibian distributions in a landscape of forests and agriculture: An examination of landscape composition and configuration. Conserv Biol 16:745–754. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1739.2002.00557.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gunzburger MS, Travis J (2005) Critical Literature Review of the Evidence for Unpalatability of Amphibian Eggs and Larvae. J Herpetol 39:547–571. doi:10.1670/1-05A.1

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hamer AJ, McDonnell MJ (2008) Amphibian ecology and conservation in the urbanising world: A review. Biol Conserv 141:2432–2449. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2008.07.020

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hamer A, Lane S, Mahony M (2002) The role of introduced mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) in excluding the native green and golden bell frog (Litoria aurea) from original habitats in south-eastern Australia. Oecologia 132:445–452. doi:10.1007/s00442-002-0968-7

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Harper EB, Rittenhouse TAG, Semlitsch RD (2008) Demographic Consequences of Terrestrial Habitat Loss for Pool-Breeding Amphibians: Predicting Extinction Risks Associated with Inadequate Size of Buffer Zones. Conserv Biol 22:1205–1215. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2008.01015.x

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hecnar SJ, M’Closkey RT (1998) Species Richness Patterns of Amphibians in Southwestern Ontario Ponds. J Biogeogr 25:763–772

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hels T, Buchwald E (2001) The effect of road kills on amphibian populations. Biol Conserv 99:331–340. doi:10.1016/S0006-3207(00)00215-9

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Homan RN, Windmiller BS, Reed JM (2004) Critical Thresholds Associated with Habitat Loss for Two Vernal Pool-Breeding Amphibians. Ecol Appl 14:1547–1553. doi:10.1890/03-5125

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hulse HC, McCoy CJ, Censky EJ (2001) Amphibians and Reptiles of Pennsylvania and the Northeast Ithaca. Cornell University Press, New York

    Google Scholar 

  • Jameson D (1956) Survival of some central Texas frogs under natural conditions. Copeia :55–57

  • Johnson JR, Semlitsch RD (2003) Defining core habitat of local populations of the gray treefrog ( Hyla versicolor) based on choice of oviposition site. Oecologia 137:205–210. doi:10.1007/s00442-003-1339-8

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kats LB, Petranka JW, Sih A (1988) Antipredator Defenses and the Persistence of Amphibian Larvae With Fishes. Ecology 69:1865–1870. doi:10.2307/1941163

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Klemens M (1993) Amphibians and reptiles of Connecticut and adjacent regions: State Geological and Natural History Survey of Connecticut

  • Knutson MG, Sauer JR, Olsen DA, Mossman MJ, Hemesath LM, Lannoo MJ (1999) Effects of Landscape Composition and Wetland Fragmentation on Frog and Toad Abundance and Species Richness in Iowa and Wisconsin, U.S.A. Conserv Biol 13:1437–1446. doi:0.1046/j.1523-1739.1999.98445.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kurzava LM, Morin PJ (1998) Tests of Functional Equivalence: Complementary Roles of Salamanders and Fish in Community Organization. Ecology 79:477–489. doi:10.1890/0012-9658(1998)079[0477:TOFECR]2.0.CO;2

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lawler SP, Dritz D, Strange T, Holyoak M (1999) Effects of introduced mosquitofish and bullfrogs on the threatened California red-legged frog. Conserv Biol 13:613–622. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1739.1999.98075.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mazerolle MJ (2004) Amphibian road mortality in response to nightly variations in traffic intensity. Herpetologica 60:45–53. doi:10.1655/02-109

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • McKinney ML (2002) Urbanization, biodiversity, and conservation. Bioscience 52:883–890. doi:10.1641/0006-3568(2002)052[0883:UBAC]2.0.CO;2

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • MDE (2000) Maryland Stormwater Design Manual. Maryland Department of the Environment, Baltimore

    Google Scholar 

  • Meyers LS, Gamst G, Guarino AJ (2006) Applied Multivariate Research: Design and Interpretation, 2nd edn. SAGE Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks

    Google Scholar 

  • NJDEP (2004a) NJPDES, Rules (N.J.A.C. 7:14A)

  • NJDEP (2004b) Stormwater Management Rule: N.J.A.C. 7:8

  • NJDEP (2004c) updated 2009 New Jersey Stormwater Best Management Practices Manual. Trenton, NJ

    Google Scholar 

  • Ostergaard E (2001) Pond-breeding amphibian use of stormwater ponds in King County. In: Washington. MS. University of Washington, Seattle, WA

  • Parris KM (2006) Urban amphibian assemblages as metacommunities. J Anim Ecol 75:757–764. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2656.2006.01096.x

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Pillsbury FC, Miller JR (2008) Habitat and landscape characteristics underlying anuran community structure along an urban-rural gradient. Ecol Appl 18:1107–1118. doi:0.1890/07-1899.1

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Pope KL, Garwood JM, Welsh HH, Lawler SP (2008) Evidence of indirect impacts of introduced trout on native amphibians via facilitation of a shared predator. Biol Conserv 141:1321–1331. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2008.03.008

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Price SJ, Marks DR, Howe RW, Hanowski JM, Niemi GJ (2005) The importance of spatial scale for conservation and assessment of anuran populations in coastal wetlands of the western Great Lakes, USA. Landscape Ecol 20:441–454. doi:10.1007/s10980-004-3167-6

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pulliam HR, Danielson BJ (1991) Sources, Sinks, and Habitat Selection: A Landscape Perspective on Population Dynamics. Am Nat 137:S50–S66. doi:10.1086/285139

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ray N, Lehmann A, Joly P (2002) Modeling spatial distribution of amphibian populations: A GIS approach based on habitat matrix permeability. Biodivers Conserv 11:2143–2165. doi:10.1023/A:1021390527698

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Relyea RA, Mills N (2001) Predator-Induced Stress Makes the Pesticide Carbaryl More Deadly to Gray Treefrog Tadpoles (Hyla versicolor). Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98:2491–2496. doi:10.1073/pnas.031076198

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Rittenhouse TAG, Semlitsch RD (2007) Distribution of amphibians in terrestrial habitat surrounding wetlands. Wetlands 27:153–161. doi:10.1672/0277-5212(2007)27[153:DOAITH]2.0.CO;2

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rubbo MJ, Kiesecker JM (2005) Amphibian breeding distribution in an urbanized landscape. Conserv Biol 19:504–511. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2005.000101.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sanzo D, Hecnar SJ (2006) Effects of road de-icing salt (NaCl) on larval wood frogs (Rana sylvatica). Environ Pollut 140:247–256. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2005.07.013

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Savage RM (1961) The Ecology and Life History of the Common Frog (Rana temporaria, temporaria). Pitman, London

    Google Scholar 

  • Schér O, Thiery A (2005) Odonata, amphibia and environmental characteristics in motorway stormwater retention ponds (Southern France). Hydrobiologia 551:237–251. doi:10.1007/s10750-005-4464-z

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Semlitsch RD (2008) Differentiating Migration and Dispersal Processes for Pond-Breeding Amphibians. J Wildl Manage 72:260–267. doi:10.2193/2007-082

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Semlitsch RD, Bodie JR (2003) Biological criteria for buffer zones around wetlands and riparian habitats for amphibians and reptiles. Conserv Biol 17:1219–1228. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1739.2003.02177.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Semlitsch R, Scott D, Pechmann J, Gibbons J (1996) Structure and dynamics of an amphibian community: Evidence from a 16-year study of a natural pond. In: Long-term studies of vertebrate communities. Academic, San Diego, pp 217–248

    Google Scholar 

  • Simon JA, Snodgrass JW, Casey RE, Sparling DW (2009) Spatial correlates of amphibian use of constructed wetlands in an urban landscape. Landscape Ecol 24:361–373. doi:10.1007/s10980-008-9311-y

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Skelly DK (1995) A Behavioral Trade-Off and Its Consequences for the Distribution of Pseudacris Treefrog Larvae. Ecology 76:150–164. doi:10.2307/1940638

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Skelly DK (1996) Pond drying, predators, and the distribution of Pseudacris tadpoles. Copeia:599–605

  • Smith MA, Green DM (2005) Dispersal and the metapopulation paradigm in amphibian ecology and conservation: Are all amphibian populations metapopulations? Ecography 28:110–128. doi:10.1111/j.0906-7590.2005.04042.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Smith MA, Green DM (2006) Sex, isolation and fidelity: Unbiased long-distance dispersal in a terrestrial amphibian. Ecography 29:649–658. doi:10.1111/j.2006.0906-7590.04584.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Snodgrass JW, Casey RE, Joseph D, Simon JA (2008) Microcosm investigations of stormwater pond sediment toxicity to embryonic and larval amphibians: Variation in sensitivity among species. Environ Pollut 154:291–297. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2007.10.003

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Stebbins R, Cohen N (1997) A natural history of amphibians: Princeton Univ Pr

  • Tabachnick BG, Fidell LS (2001) Using multivariate statistics Needham Heights. Allyn and Bacon, Massachusetts

    Google Scholar 

  • Trenham PC, Shaffer HB (2005) Amphibian Upland Habitat Use and Its Consequences for Population Viability. Ecol Appl 15:1158–1168. doi:10.1890/04-1150

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Trenham PC, Koenig WD, Mossman MJ, Stark SL, Jagger LA (2003) Regional Dynamics of Wetland-Breeding Frogs and Toads: Turnover and Synchrony. Ecol Appl 13:1522–1532. doi:10.1890/02-5206

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • USEPA (2000) revised 2005 Stormwater Phase II Final Rule, An Overview. In: Catalogue No. EPA 833-F-00-001

  • Van Buskirk J (2003) Habitat partitioning in European and North American pond-breeding frogs and toads. Divers Distrib 9:399–410. doi:10.1046/j.1472-4642.2003.00038.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Van Buskirk J (2005) Local and Landscape Influence on Amphibian Occurrence and Abundance. Ecology 86:1936–1947. doi:10.1890/04-1237

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Welborn GA, Skelly DK, Werner EE (1996) Mechanisms Creating Community Structure Across a Freshwater Habitat Gradient. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 27:337–363. doi:10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.27.1.337

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Werner EE, McPeek MA (1994) Direct and Indirect Effects of Predators on Two Anuran Species along an Environmental Gradient. Ecology 75:1368–1382. doi:10.2307/1937461

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Werner EE, Skelly DK, Relyea RA, Yurewicz KL (2007a) Amphibian species richness across environmental gradients. Oikos 116:1697–1712. doi:10.1111/j.2007.0030-1299.15935.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Werner EE, Yurewicz KL, Skelly DK, Relyea RA (2007b) Turnover in an amphibian metacommunity: The role of local and regional factors. Oikos 116:1713–1725. doi:10.1111/j.0030-1299.2007.16039.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Willis Y, Moyle D, Baskett T (1956) Emergence, breeding, hibernation, movements and transformation of the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana, in Missouri. Copeia:30–41

  • Woods-Ballard B, Kellagher R, Martin P, Jefferies C, Bray R, Shaffer P (2007) The SUDS Manual. CIRIA, London

    Google Scholar 

  • Zampella RA, Bunnell JF, Laidig KJ, Procopio NA (2006) Using multiple indicators to evaluate the ecological integrity of a coastal plain stream system. Ecol Indic 6:644–663. doi:10.1016/j.ecolind.2005.08.027

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Kathleen McCarthy.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

McCarthy, K., Lathrop, R.G. Stormwater basins of the New Jersey coastal plain: Subsidies or sinks for frogs and toads?. Urban Ecosyst 14, 395–413 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11252-011-0161-z

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11252-011-0161-z

Keywords

Navigation