Effects of detailed illustrations on science learning: an eye-tracking study
- 739 Downloads
The eye-tracking method was used to assess the influence of detailed, colorful illustrations on reading behaviors and learning outcomes. Based on participants’ subjective ratings in a pre-study, we selected eight one-page human anatomy lessons. In the main study, participants learned these eight human anatomy lessons; four were accompanied by detailed illustrations, and the other four were accompanied by simplified illustrations. Participants completed a comprehension test and an evaluation questionnaire after reading each lesson. The results showed that detailed and simplified illustrations were equally effective in terms of learning outcomes. Eye-tracking data indicated that the detailed illustrations attracted attention in the initial learning stage and received more visual attention during the overall learning process. Notably, correlation analysis revealed that spending a greater proportion of time re-inspecting the simplified illustration was associated with higher test performances. By contrast, greater proportion of time spent re-inspecting the detailed illustration was not significantly correlated with learning outcomes. The results suggest that detailed illustrations could influence the learning process, and may support learning differently compared with simplified illustrations.
KeywordsDetailed illustrations Cognitive load theory Motivation Eye-tracking
This study was supported by JSPS Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (KAKENHI S22220003).
- Bates, D., Maechler, M., Bolker, B., & Walker, S. (2013). lme4: Linear mixed-effects models using Eigen and S4. R package version 1.0–4. http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=lme4.
- Dweck, C. (2006). Mindset: the new psychology of success. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
- Dwyer, F. M. (1970). Exploratory studies in the effectiveness of visual illustrations. Audiovisual Communication Review, 39, 36–41.Google Scholar
- Dwyer, F. M. (1971). Color as an instructional variable. Audiovisual Communication Review, 19(4), 399–416.Google Scholar
- Dwyer, F. M. (1976). The effect of IQ level on the instructional effectiveness of black and white and colour illustrations. Audio Visual Communications Review, 24, 49–62.Google Scholar
- Feist, G. J., & Rosenberg, E. L. (2011). Psychology: Perspectives and connections (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
- Holmqvist, K., Nyström, M., Andersson, R., Dewhurst, R., Jarodzka, H., & van de Weijer, J. (2011). Eye tracking: A comprehensive guide to methods and measures. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Johnson, C. I., & Mayer, R. E. (2012). An eye movement analysis of the spatial contiguity effect in multimedia learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 18(2), 178–191.Google Scholar
- Koch, B., Seufert, T., & Brünken, R. (2008). One more expertise reversal effect in an instructional design to foster coherence formation. In J. Zumbach, N. Schwartz, T. Seufert, & L. Kester (Eds.), Beyond knowledge: The legacy of competence. Meaningful computer-based learning environments (pp. 207–215). Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kuznetsova, A., Brockhoff, P. B., & Christensen, R. H. B. (2014). lmerTest: Tests for random and fixed effects for linear mixed effect models (lmer objects of lme4 package). R package version 2.0–11. http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=lmerTest.
- Levie, H. W., & Lentz, R. (1982). Effects of text illustrations: A review of research. Educational Communication and Technology Journal, 30, 195–232.Google Scholar
- Mayer, R. E. (Ed.). (2005). The Cambridge handbook of multimedia learning. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Sweller, J. (1999). Instructional design in technical areas. Melbourne: ACER Press.Google Scholar
- Tortora, G. J., Derrickson, B. H., Saeki, Y., Hosoya, Y., Takahashi, K., & Kuwaki, T. (2011). Introduction to the Human Body (9th ed.). Tokyo: Maruzen publishing. [in Japanese].Google Scholar
- Van Gendt, K., & Verhagen, P. (2001). Visual testing. Searching for guidelines. In Paper presented at the 24th National Convention of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology, Atlanta, Georgia.Google Scholar