Skip to main content

Table 1 Overview of empirical studies in this special issue

From: Productive failure in learning from generation and invention activities

Authors Focus/research question Participants Domain/learning content Status Setting
Kapur Replicate PF and the relevance of RSM diversity 9th-grade students Statistics: concept of variance New concept Classroom-based
Westermann and Rummel Process guidance for PF in the form of role script University students (Masters level) Mathematics: analysis Relearning Optional tutorials following previous lecture
Roll et al. Process guidance for PF in the form of metacognitive scaffolding University students (undergraduate) Statistics: uncertainty in the slope of best-fitting line New concept Laboratory-based
Wiedmann et al. Effect of math ability/group composition University students (undergraduate) Statistics: concept of variance New concept Classroom-based, laboratory