Considering the escalating number of scientific reports on the association between the leptin gene and diverse physiological traits and performance of cattle populations, this study was directed towards identifying SNPs in the leptin gene among five indigenous cattle breeds of Ethiopia. DNA samples were extracted from the nasal swabs of the Ethiopian indigenous cattle breeds: Arsi (n = 18), Horro (n = 20), Begait (n = 21), Boran (n = 19), and Fogera (n = 17) and the Korean Hanwoo (a representative taurine breed) (n = 20), followed by PCR amplification of exon 2 and exon 3 regions of the leptin gene and sequence analysis of the PCR products. Five SNPs, two (generating missense mutations) on exon 2 and three (generating silent mutations) on exon 3 regions, were explicated in this study. Allele frequency and genotype frequency distribution pertaining to the SNPs were recorded for the studied cattle breeds besides the minor allele frequency and deviation from the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium. Positive FIS index values were recorded for all the markers except SNP2, illustrative of heterozygote deficiency. MEGA X software-based evolutionary divergence analysis of the phylogenetic tree based on the SNP data revealed that the large-sized breeds, Hanwoo, Begait, Boran, and Fogera, were more closely clustered compared to the small-sized Arsi breed. Among the seven haplotypes documented from the various breeds, sequence analysis was suggestive of haplotypes 1 and 2 to be ancestral haplotypes for the leptin gene. This study is envisaged to accelerate molecular breeding programs for the genetic improvement of the Ethiopian cattle breeds.
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The animals used in this study were owned by governmental institutions (ranches) established for the purpose of beef, milk, and research. Prior to sampling, the objectives of the investigation were explained to the responsible bodies (ranch managers and experts), and informed consent was obtained to sample the animals. Government veterinary, animal welfare, and health regulations were observed during sampling. The procedure involving sample collection followed the recommendation of directive 2010/63/EU.
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Mandefro, A., Sisay, T., Kim, KS. et al. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of leptin gene in five Ethiopian indigenous cattle breeds and the Korean Hanwoo breed. Trop Anim Health Prod 53, 202 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-021-02642-1
- Cattle population
- Genetic diversity
- Leptin gene