Sunnhemp (Crotalaria juncea, L.) silage can enrich rumen fermentation process, microbial protein synthesis, and nitrogen utilization efficiency in beef cattle crossbreds

Abstract

The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of leguminous fodder silage on rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility, and utilization in beef cattle crossbreds. Four cattle, with an average live weight of 280 ± 10 kg, were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with supplementation of various levels of sunnhemp silage (SHS). Sunnhemp silage was fed to cattle at 0, 1, 1.5, and 2 kg DM SHS/head/day. The DM, OM, and CP digestibilities were increased (P < 0.05), and the highest value was found by feeding 2 kg DM SHS/head/day. Total volatile fatty acids and individual volatile fatty acid (VFA) especially C3 were increased (P < 0.01), while C2 and C2:C3 ratios were decreased (P < 0.01) when SHS was supplemented. Nitrogen utilization efficiency and urinary purine derivatives were increased (P < 0.01) by the SHS supplementation. In conclusion, these data suggest that feeding SHS at 1.5 to 2 kg DM/ head/day can significantly increase rumen fermentation end-products, nitrogen utilization efficiency, and microbial protein synthesis. Sunnhemp silage can be practically processed and provided as a good roughage source for ruminants. Therefore, sunnhemp silage is recommended as a feeding intervention in the sub-tropical and tropical regions to support the sustainable livestock production.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Data availability

Not applicable.

Code availability

Not applicable.

References

  1. Al-Snafi, A.E., 2016. The contents and pharmacology of Crotalaria juncea-A review. IOSR Journal of Pharmacy, 6(6), 77–86

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. AOAC., 2012. Official Methods of Analysis, 19th 301 ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Gaithersburg, MD

    Google Scholar 

  3. ARC., 1984. The Nutrient Requirements of Ruminant Livestock. CAB, Slough, pp. 45

    Google Scholar 

  4. Broderick, G.A. and Kang, J.H., 1980. Automated simultaneous determination of ammonia and total amino acids in ruminal fluid and in vitro media 1. Journal of Dairy Science, 63(1), 64–75

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Byers, F.M. and Moxon, A.L., 1980. Protein and selenium levels for growing and finishing beef cattle. Journal of Animal Science, 50, 1136–1144

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Chaudhary, D.P., Jat, S.L., Kumar, R., Kumar, A. and Kumar, B., 2014. Fodder quality of maize: Its preservation. In Maize: Nutrition Dynamics and Novel Uses (pp. 153–160). Springer, New Delhi

  7. Chen, X.B. and Gomes, M.J., 1992. Estimation of microbial protein supply to sheep and cattle based on urinary excretion of purine derivatives-an overview of the technical details; International Feed Resources Unit, Rowel Research Institute: Aberdeen, UK

    Google Scholar 

  8. Chen, X.B., Kyle, D.J. and Ørskov, E.R., 1993. Measurement of allantoin in urine and plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography with pre-column derivatization. Journal of Chromatography A, 617, 241–247

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Croker, C.L., 1967. Rapid determination of urea nitrogen in serum or plasma without deproteinization. The American journal of medical technology, 33, 361–5

    Google Scholar 

  10. De Vadder, F., Kovatcheva-Datchary, P., Zitoun, C., Duchampt, A., Bäckhed, F. and Mithieux, G., 2016. Microbiota-produced succinate improves glucose homeostasis via intestinal gluconeogenesis. Cell metabolism, 24(1), 151–157

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Dórea, J.R.R., Danés, M.A.C., Zanton, G.I. and Armentano, L.E., 2017. Urinary purine derivatives as a tool to estimate dry matter intake in cattle: a meta-analysis. Journal of Dairy Science, 100(11), 8977–8994

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Estell, R.E., Havstad, K.M., Cibils, A.F., Fredrickson, E.L., Anderson, D.M., Schrader, T.S. and James, D.K., 2012. Increasing shrub use by livestock in a world with less grass. Rangeland Ecology and Management, 65, 553–562

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Franzel, S., Carsan, S., Lukuyu, B., Sinja, J. and Wambugu, C., 2014. Fodder trees for improving livestock productivity and smallholder livelihoods in Africa. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 6, pp. 98–103

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Galyean, M., 1989. Laboratory procedure in animal nutrition research, Department of animal and range science, New Mexico State University, USA

    Google Scholar 

  15. Giang, N.T.T., Wanapat, M., Phesatcha, K. and Kang, S., 2016. Level of Leucaena leucocephala silage feeding on intake, rumen fermentation, and nutrient digestibility in dairy steers. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 48(5), 1057–1064

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Kang, S., Wanapat, M., Cherdthong, A. and Phesatcha, K., 2016. Comparison of banana flower powder and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on rumen fermentation and milk production in dairy cows. Animal Production Science, 56, 1650–1661

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Koike, S. and Kobayashi, Y., 2009. Fibrolytic rumen bacteria: their ecology and functions. Asian-Australas. Journal of Animal Science, 22(1), 131–138

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. Lepcha, I., Naumann, H.D., Fritschi, F.B. and Kallenbach, R.L., 2019. Herbage accumulation, nutritive value, and regrowth potential of Sunn hemp at different harvest regimens and maturity. Crop Science, 59(1), 413–421

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. McGrath, J., Duval, S.M., Tamassia, L.F., Kindermann, M., Stemmler, R.T., de Gouvea, V.N., Acedo, T.S., Immig, I., Williams, S.N. and Celi, P., 2018. Nutritional strategies in ruminants: a lifetime approach. Research in Veterinary Science, 116, pp. 28–39

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Patra, A.K., Sharma, K., Dutta, N. and Pattanaik, A.K., 2002. Effect of partial replacement of dietary protein by a leaf meal mixture containing Leucaena leucocephala, Morus alba and Azadirachta indica on performance of goats. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 15(12), 1732–1737

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Perdok, H.B. and Leng, R.A., 1990. Effect of supplementation with protein meal on the growth of cattle given a basal diet of untreated or ammoniated rice straw. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 3(4), 269–279

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Phesatcha, K. and Wanapat, M., 2016. Improvement of nutritive value and in vitro ruminal fermentation of Leucaena silage by molasses and urea supplementation. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 29(8), 1136

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Salem, H.B., Saghrouni, L. and Nefzaoui, A., 2005. Attempts to deactivate tannins in fodder shrubs with physical and chemical treatments. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 122, 109–121

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Samuel, M., Sagathewan, S., Thomas, J. and Mathen, G., 1997. An HPLC method for estimation of volatile fatty acids of ruminal fluid. Indian journal of animal science, 67, 805–811

    Google Scholar 

  25. Sarnklong, C., Cone, J.W., Pellikaan, W. and Hendriks, W.H., 2010. Utilization of rice straw and different treatments to improve its feed value for ruminants: a review. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 23(5), 680–692

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. SAS (Statistical Analysis System)., 2013. User’s Guide: Statistic, Version 9.4th Edition. SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC

  27. Srisaikham, S. and Lounglawan, P., 2017. Effect of cutting age and cutting height on production and nutritive value of sunnhemp (Crotalaria juncea) harvest in Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand. In IV Asia Symposium on Quality Management in Postharvest Systems 1210 (pp. 29–34)

  28. Steel, R.G.D. and Torrie, J.H., 1980. Principles and procedures of statistics. Me-Graw Hill Book Co. Inc., NY, USA

    Google Scholar 

  29. Stern, M.O., Santos, K.A. and Satter, L.D., 1985. Protein degradation in rumen and amino acid absorption in small intestine of lactating dairy cattle fed heat-treated whole soybeans. Journal of Dairy Science, 68(1), 45–56

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Van Soest, P.J. and Robertson, J.B., 1985. A laboratory manual for animal science. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY

    Google Scholar 

  31. Van Soest, P.J., Robertson, J.B. and Lewis, B.A., 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and non starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science, 74, 3583–3597

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Viennasay, B. and Wanapat, M., 2020. Enhancing lactating dairy cow rumen fermentation and production with Flemingia silage containing phytonutrients. Livestock Science, 241, 104201

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Viennasay, B., Wanapat, M., Phesatcha, K., Phesatcha, B. and Ampapon, T., 2019. Replacement of rice straw with cassava-top silage on rumen ecology, fermentation and nutrient digestibilities in dairy steers. Animal Production Science, 59(5), 906–913

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Wanapat, M., 2000. Rumen manipulation to increase the efficient use of local feed resources and productivity of ruminants in the tropics. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 13, 59–67

    Google Scholar 

  35. Wanapat, M., 2009. Potential uses of local feed resources for ruminants. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 41(7), 1035

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Wanapat, M., Polyorach, S., Boonnop, K., Mapato, C. and Cherdthong, A., 2009. Effects of treating rice straw with urea or urea and calcium hydroxide upon intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation and milk yield of dairy cows. Livestock Science, 125(2-3), 238–243

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Wanapat, M., Kang, S. and Polyorach, S., 2013. Development of feeding systems and strategies of supplementation to enhance rumen fermentation and ruminant production in the tropics. Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology, 4(1), 32

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Wang, C.L. and Dai, Y.L., 2018. First report of sunn hemp Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium udum f. sp. crotalariae in Taiwan. Plant disease, 102(5), 1031–1031

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Wang, C., He, L., Xing, Y., Zhou, W., Yang, F., Chen, X. and Zhang, Q., 2019. Fermentation quality and microbial community of alfalfa and stylo silage mixed with Moringa oleifera leaves. Bioresource Technology, 284, 240–247

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors thank the Tropical Feed Resources Research and Development Center, Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University, Thailand for the use of experiment facilities.

Funding

The authors received funding from the Thailand Research Fund under the Thailand Science Research and Innovation (TSRI) (TRF-IRN57W0002 and TRF-IRG5980010).

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

MW and MM designed the experiment; MM, PT, and BV have done the laboratory analysis, data tabulation, and data interpretation; MW and MM prepared the manuscript; MW and MM edited the manuscript; MW and MM revised and amended the manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Maharach Matra.

Ethics declarations

Ethics approval

This study has been officially approved and granted by the Animal Care and Use Committee of Khon Kaen University to conduct this experiment and approved by the Institute of Animals for Scientific Purpose Development (IAD), Thailand (record no. U1-06878-2560).

Consent to participate

Not applicable.

Consent for publication

Not applicable.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no competing interests.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Wanapat, M., Totakul, P., Viennasay, B. et al. Sunnhemp (Crotalaria juncea, L.) silage can enrich rumen fermentation process, microbial protein synthesis, and nitrogen utilization efficiency in beef cattle crossbreds. Trop Anim Health Prod 53, 187 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-021-02628-z

Download citation

Keywords

  • Silage
  • Local feed
  • Fermentation
  • Fodder
  • Protein source