Feeding behavior of feedlot-finished crossbred bulls fed palm kernel cake


The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary inclusion of palm kernel cake (PKC) on the feeding behavior of feedlot-finished cattle. Forty uncastrated crossbred bulls with an average age of 24.2 ± 2 months and an average weight of 331.1 ± 36.2 kg were distributed into four treatment groups in a completely randomized design with ten replicates. The treatments consisted of 0, 8, 16, or 24% PKC inclusion in the diet (dry matter basis). Palm kernel cake inclusion influenced feeding time (P < 0.05), which increased linearly. The inclusion of the ingredient also affected (P < 0.05) rumination time (min/day), total chewing time, and the time spent on other activities. The number of cuds ruminated per day showed a linear response to the PKC inclusion levels (P < 0.05). The number of feeding bouts increased linearly (P < 0.05). Dry matter (DM) intake and DM feeding efficiency decreased linearly (P < 0.05). There were no effects of PKC inclusion (P > 0.05) on neutral detergent fiber feeding (NDF) efficiency or DM rumination efficiency. NDF rumination efficiency increased linearly (P < 0.05). Palm kernel cake can be included at levels up to 24% in the total diet of feedlot-finished crossbred bulls, as it does not affect their dry matter intake or feeding behavior.

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This study was financially supported by the Research Support Foundation of Bahia State (Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado da Bahia, FAPESB).

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Conceptualization: Robério Rodrigues Silva, Fabiano Ferreira da Silva, Gleidson Giordano Pinto de Carvalho; methodology: Mateus de Melo Lisboa, Maria Magna Silva Pereira, Gabriel Dallapicola Costa, Fabrício Bacelar Lima Mendes, Sinvaldo Oliveira de Souza; formal analysis and investigation: Mateus de Melo Lisboa, Marceliana da Conceição Santos, Laoan Brito Oliveira Rodrigues, Henry Daniel Ruiz Alba; writing—original draft preparation: Mateus de Melo Lisboa, Robério Rodrigues Silva, Fabiano Ferreira da Silva, Gabriel Dallapicola Costa, Fabrício Bacelar Lima Mendes; writing—review and editing: Sinvaldo Oliveira de Souza, Marceliana da Conceição Santos, Laoan Brito Oliveira Rodrigues, Henry Daniel Ruiz Alba, Gleidson Giordano Pinto de Carvalho; funding acquisition: Robério Rodrigues Silva, Gleidson Giordano Pinto de Carvalho; supervision: Robério Rodrigues Silva, Fabiano Ferreira da Silva, Gleidson Giordano Pinto de Carvalho.

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Correspondence to Gleidson G. P. de Carvalho.

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The current study was approved by the Ethics Committee on Animal Use of the Southwestern Bahia State University (approval no. 45/2013).

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Lisboa, M.d.M., Silva, R.R., da Silva, F.F. et al. Feeding behavior of feedlot-finished crossbred bulls fed palm kernel cake. Trop Anim Health Prod 53, 186 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-021-02616-3

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  • Efficiency
  • Ethology
  • Ingestion
  • Ruminant