Feeding behavior of feedlot-finished crossbred bulls fed palm kernel cake

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary inclusion of palm kernel cake (PKC) on the feeding behavior of feedlot-finished cattle. Forty uncastrated crossbred bulls with an average age of 24.2 ± 2 months and an average weight of 331.1 ± 36.2 kg were distributed into four treatment groups in a completely randomized design with ten replicates. The treatments consisted of 0, 8, 16, or 24% PKC inclusion in the diet (dry matter basis). Palm kernel cake inclusion influenced feeding time (P < 0.05), which increased linearly. The inclusion of the ingredient also affected (P < 0.05) rumination time (min/day), total chewing time, and the time spent on other activities. The number of cuds ruminated per day showed a linear response to the PKC inclusion levels (P < 0.05). The number of feeding bouts increased linearly (P < 0.05). Dry matter (DM) intake and DM feeding efficiency decreased linearly (P < 0.05). There were no effects of PKC inclusion (P > 0.05) on neutral detergent fiber feeding (NDF) efficiency or DM rumination efficiency. NDF rumination efficiency increased linearly (P < 0.05). Palm kernel cake can be included at levels up to 24% in the total diet of feedlot-finished crossbred bulls, as it does not affect their dry matter intake or feeding behavior.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Data availability

Not applicable.

References

  1. ABIEC - Associação Brasileira das Indústrias Exportadoras de Carne. BeefREPORT: perfil da pecuária no Brazil. 2019. http://abiec.com.br/publicacoes/beef-report-2019/#dflip-df_1343/1/. Accessed 30 Jul. 2020.

  2. Beauchemin, K.A., 2018. Invited review: Current perspectives on eating and rumination activity in dairy cows, Journal of Dairy Science, 101(6), 4762--4784. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2017-13706.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. Bürger, P.J., Pereira, J.C., Queiroz, A.C.D., Coelho da Silva, J.F., Valadares Filho, S.D.C., Cecon, P.R. and Casali, A.D.P., 2000. Feeding behavior in holstein calves fed diets with different concentrate levels, Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, 29, 236--242. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-35982000000100031.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Carvalho, G.G.P.D., Pires, A.J.V., Silva, F.F.D., Veloso, C.M., Silva, R.R., Silva, H.G.D.O., Bonomo, P. and Mendonça, S.D.S., 2004. Feeding behavior of dairy goats fed on cocoa meal or palm cake, Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira, 39(9), 919-925. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-204X2004000900012.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Cruz, C.H., Silva, T.M., Santana Filho, N.B., Leão, A.G., Ribeiro, O.L., Carvalho, G.G.P., Bezerra, L.R. and Oliveira, R.L., 2018. Effects of palm kernel cake (Elaeis guineensis) on intake, digestibility, performance, feeding behaviour and carcass traits in Nellore bulls, The Journal of Agricultural Science, 156(9), 1145-1152. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859618001168.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Detmann, E. and Valadares Filho, S.C., 2010. On the estimation of non-fibrous carbohydrates in feeds and diets, Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, 62(4), 980-984. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-09352010000400030.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Detmann, E., Souza, M.A., Valadares Filho, S.C., Queiroz, A.C., Berchielli, T.T., Saliba, E.O.S., Cabral, L.S., Pina, D.S., Ladeira, M.M. and Azevêdo, J.A.G., 2012. Métodos para análise de alimentos, (Suprema, Visconde do Rio Branco, MG).

  8. Fereira, A.C., Oliveira, R.L., Bagaldo, A.R., Carvalho, G.G.P., Silva, R.L.N.V. and Oliveira, P.A., 2012. Intake, digestibility and intake behaviour in cattle fed different levels of palm kernel cake, Revista MVZ Córdoba, 17(3), 3105-3112.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Figueiredo, M.R.P.D., Saliba, E.D.O.S., Barbosa, G.S.S.C., Lopes, F.C.F., Nunes, A.N. and Figueiredo, M.C.P.D., 2018. Cocoa byproduct in diets for dairy heifers, Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, 47, e20170126. https://doi.org/10.1590/rbz4720170126.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Macome, F.M., Oliveira, R.L., Araújo, G.G.L., Barbosa, L.P., Carvalho, G.G.P., Garcez, N. and Silva, T.M., 2012. Feeding and physiological responses of lambs fed palm kernel meal (Elaeis guineensis), Archivos de Zootecnia, 61(235), 335-342. https://doi.org/10.4321/S0004-05922012000300002.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Mendes Neto, J., Campos, J.M.D.S., Valadares Filho, S.D.C., Lana, R.D.P., Queiroz, A.C.D. and Euclydes, R.F., 2007. Chewing activity of dairy heifers fed diets with partial replacement of Tifton 85 hay with citrus pulp, Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, 36(3), 618-625. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-35982007000300015.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Mertens, D.R., 1994. Regulation of forage intake. In: G.C. Fahey, M. Collins, D.R. Mertens and L. E. (eds), Forage Quality, Evaluation, and Utilization, Wisconsin, USA, 1994 (American Society of Agronomy, Madison), 450--493.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Miller-Cushon, E.K. and DeVries, T.J., 2017. Feed sorting in dairy cattle: Causes, consequences, and management, Journal of Dairy Science, 100(5), 4172--4183. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2016-11983.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. Neto, S.G., Oliveira, R.L., de Lima, F.H.S., de Medeiros, A.N., Bezerra, L.R., Viégas, J., Nascimento Jr., N.G. and de Freitas Neto, M. D. (2015). Milk production, intake, digestion, blood parameters, and feeding behavior of cows supplemented with by-products from the biodiesel industry, Tropical Animal Health and Production, 47(1), 191-200. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-014-0706-2.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Nørgaard, P., Nadeau, E. and Randby, Å.T., 2011. A new Nordic evaluation system for diets fed to dairy cows: a meta analysis. In: D. Sauvant, J. Van Milgen, P. Faverdin and N. Friggens (eds), Modelling nutrient digestion and utilisation in farm animals, Netherlands, 2011, (Wageningen), 112--120.

  16. NRC – National Research Council, 2000. Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle, seventh revised edition, (The National Academies Press, Washington, DC, USA).

    Google Scholar 

  17. Oliveira, R.L., Carvalho, G.G.P., Oliveira, R.L., Tosto, M.S.L., Santos, E.M., Ribeiro, R.D.X., Silva, T.M., Correia, B.R. and Rufino, L.M.A., 2017. Palm kernel cake obtained from biodiesel production in diets for goats: feeding behavior and physiological parameters, Tropical animal health and production, 49(7), 1401-1407. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-017-1340-6.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. Pimentel, L.R., Silva, F.F.D., Silva, R.R., Schio, A.R., Rodrigues, E.S.D.O. and Oliveira, P.A.D., 2015. Feeding behavior of lactating cows fed palm kernel cake in the diet, Acta Scientiarum. Animal Sciences, 37(1), 83-89. https://doi.org/10.4025/actascianimsci.v37i1.23391.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Plaizier, J.C., Mesgaran, M.D., Derakhshani, H., Golder, H., Khafipour, E., Kleen, J.L., Lean, I., Loor, J., Penner, G. and Zebeli, Q., 2018. Enhancing gastrointestinal health in dairy cows, Animal, 12(s2), s399-s418. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1751731118001921.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. Santana Filho, N.B., Oliveira, R.L., Cruz, C.H., Leão, A.G., Ribeiro, O.L., Borja, M.S., Silva, T.M. and Abreu, C.L., 2016. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of meat from young Nellore bulls fed different levels of palm kernel cake, Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 96(10), 3590-3595. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.7546.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. Santana Junior, H.A., Figueiredo, M.P., Santana, E.O.C., Mendes, F.B.L., Abreu Filho, G., Pinheiro, A.A., Lisboa, M.M., Luz, Y.S., Viana, P.T., Ferreira, A.H.C. and de Souza Rech, C.L., 2013. Crude glycerin in diets for lactating cows grazing on tropical pasture: Feeding behavior, Semina: Ciências Agrárias, 34(3), 1339-1352. https://doi.org/10.5433/1679-0359.2013v34n3p1339.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Santana, M.C.A., Euclides, V.B.P., Mancio, A.B., Medeiros, S.R., Costa, J.A.R. and Oliveira, R.L., 2013. Intake and performance of yearling steers grazing guineagrass (Panicum maximum cv. tanzânia) pasture supplemented with different energy sources, Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 26, 349–357. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2012.12226.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  23. Schneider, L., Volkmann, N., Kemper, N. and Spindler, B., 2020. Feeding Behavior of Fattening Bulls Fed Six Times per Day Using an Automatic Feeding System, Frontiers in Veterinary Science, 7, 43. https://doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2020.00043.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  24. Schulze, A.K.S., Weisbjerg, M.R. and Nørgaard, P., 2014. Effects of feeding level and NDF content of grass-clover silages on chewing activity, fecal particle size and NDF digestibility in dairy heifers, Animal, 8(12), 1945-1954. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1751731114002055.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  25. Schulze, A.K.S., Nørgaard, P., Byskov, M.V. and Weisbjerg, M.R., 2015. Evaluation of physical structure value in spring-harvested grass/clover silage and hay fed to heifers, Animal, 9(2), 275-284. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1751731114002286.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  26. Silva, R.R., do Prado, I.N., de Carvalho, G.G.P., de Santana Junior, H.A., da Silva, F.F. and Dias, D.L.S., 2008. Effect of the use of three intervals between comments on the precision of the results gotten in the study of the intake behavior of dairy cows in grazing, Ciência Animal Brasileira, 9, 319-326.

    Google Scholar 

  27. Sniffen, C.J., O'connor, J.D., Van Soest, P.J., Fox, D.G. and Russell, J.B., 1992. A net carbohydrate and protein system for evaluating cattle diets: II. Carbohydrate and protein availability, Journal of Animal Science, 70(11), 3562-3577. https://doi.org/10.2527/1992.70113562x.

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. Van Soest, P.J., 1994. Nutritional ecology of the ruminant, second edition, (Cornell University Press, Ithaca).

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Code availability

Not applicable.

Funding

This study was financially supported by the Research Support Foundation of Bahia State (Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado da Bahia, FAPESB).

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

Conceptualization: Robério Rodrigues Silva, Fabiano Ferreira da Silva, Gleidson Giordano Pinto de Carvalho; methodology: Mateus de Melo Lisboa, Maria Magna Silva Pereira, Gabriel Dallapicola Costa, Fabrício Bacelar Lima Mendes, Sinvaldo Oliveira de Souza; formal analysis and investigation: Mateus de Melo Lisboa, Marceliana da Conceição Santos, Laoan Brito Oliveira Rodrigues, Henry Daniel Ruiz Alba; writing—original draft preparation: Mateus de Melo Lisboa, Robério Rodrigues Silva, Fabiano Ferreira da Silva, Gabriel Dallapicola Costa, Fabrício Bacelar Lima Mendes; writing—review and editing: Sinvaldo Oliveira de Souza, Marceliana da Conceição Santos, Laoan Brito Oliveira Rodrigues, Henry Daniel Ruiz Alba, Gleidson Giordano Pinto de Carvalho; funding acquisition: Robério Rodrigues Silva, Gleidson Giordano Pinto de Carvalho; supervision: Robério Rodrigues Silva, Fabiano Ferreira da Silva, Gleidson Giordano Pinto de Carvalho.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Gleidson G. P. de Carvalho.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Ethics approval

The current study was approved by the Ethics Committee on Animal Use of the Southwestern Bahia State University (approval no. 45/2013).

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Lisboa, M.d.M., Silva, R.R., da Silva, F.F. et al. Feeding behavior of feedlot-finished crossbred bulls fed palm kernel cake. Trop Anim Health Prod 53, 186 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-021-02616-3

Download citation

Keywords

  • Efficiency
  • Ethology
  • Ingestion
  • Ruminant