Local indigenous knowledge (IK) informs decision-making about fundamental aspects of life. The inclusion of indigenous knowledge is increasingly becoming a topical subject to enhance livestock veterinary care. The objective of the current study was to explore the extent of utilisation of indigenous knowledge to control ticks in goats. There was an association (P < 0.05) between the use of IK and gender, with males using IK (76.58%) more than females. The association between age distribution and IK use was (P < 0.05); however, farmers above the age of 50 years were using IK more than all group ages. Farmers ranked the purposes of using IK differently (P < 0.05). Ectoparasites were ranked as the most important constraint limiting goat productivity. Ticks were ranked as the most important external parasites. Amblyomma tick species were ranked as the most important amongst the tick species, followed by Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi ticks. A significant population of farmers (80.7%) are dependent on the use of tick sprays, whereas others used injections (3.3%). Cissus quadrangularis L. (Inhlashwana) was singled out as the most used ethno-veterinary plant to control ticks with a frequency of (64%), followed by Gomphocarpus physocarpus E. Mey (Uphehlacwathi) (55.9%). The probability of keeping goats in wet rangelands (P < 0.05) was 3.04 times more likely to influence the extent of IK use compared to their contemporaries in the dry rangeland. Male farmers keeping goats (P < 0.01) were 2.95 more likely to influence the extent of use of IK than females. The type of rangeland, gender, age, residing on farm and also having the herbalist in the locality were the most common factors that influenced the extent of IK utilisation.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Availability of data and material
The datasets generated and/or analysed during the current study are not publicly available due to cooperating producer privacy and confidentiality, but are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
Adenubi, O.T., Fasina, F.O., McGaw, L. J., Eloff, J.N., Naidoo, V., 2016. Plant extracts to control ticks of veterinary and medical importance: A review. South African Journal of Botany. 105, 178–193.
Amsalu, N., Bezie, Y., Fentahun G, Alemayehu, A., Amsalu, G., 2017. Use and Conservation of Medicinal Plants by Indigenous People of Gozamin Wereda, East Gojjam Zone of Amhara Region, Ethiopia: An Ethnobotanical Approach. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/2973513.
Byaruhanga, C., Gakunga, J.N., Olinga, S., Egayu, G., Boma, P., Aleper., D, 2015. Ethnoveterinary practices in the control of helminthosis and ticks of livestock amongst pastoralists in Karamoja Region, Uganda. Veterinary Parasitology. 195,183-186.
Chimonyo, M., Bhebhe, E, Dzama, K, Halimani, K. and Kanengoni, A., 2005. Improving smallholder pig production for food security and livelihood of the poor in southern Africa, African Crop Science Conference Proceedings, 7: 569–57.
Durawo, C., Zindove, T.J., Chimonyo, M., 2017. Influence of genotype and topography on the goat predation challenge under communal production systems. Small Ruminant Research. 149, 115–120.
Dzama, K., Marandure, T., 2016. Drought in Southern Africa points to urgent need for climate change plans. The Conversation. email@example.com.
Gumbochuma, G., Hamandishe, V. R., Nyahangare, E.T., Imbayarwo-Chikosi, V.E., Ncube, S., 2013. Ethnoveterinary practices for poultry and cattle in Zimbabwe: a case study of Takavarasha village. Scientific Journal of Animal Science 2(12), 355-359.
Habeeb, S.M., 2010. Ethno-veterinary and medical knowledge of crude plant extracts and its methods of application (traditional and modern) for tick control. World Applied Sciences Journal, 11, 1047-1054.
Luseba, D., Tshisikhawe, M.P., 2013. Medicinal plants used in the treatment of livestock diseases in Vhembe region, Limpopo province, South Africa. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 7 (10), 593-601.
Luseba, D., Van der Merwe, D., 2006. Ethnoveterinary medicine practices among Tsonga speaking people of South Africa. Onderstepoort Journal Veterinary Research, 73,115-122.
Mdletshe, Z.M., Ndlela, S.Z., Nsahlai, I.V. and Chimonyo, M., 2018. Farmer perceptions on factors influencing water scarcity for goats in resource-limited communal farming environments. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 1-7.
Morgenthal, T.L., Kellner, K., van Rensburg, L., Newby, T.S., van der Merwe, J.P.A., 2006. Vegetation and habitat types of the UMkhanyakude Node, South African Journal of Botany, 72: 1–10.
Moyo, B., Masika, P.J., 2009. Tick control methods used by resource-limited farmers and the effect of ticks on cattle in rural areas of the Eastern Cape Province. South Africa. Tropical Animal Health Production, 41(4), 517–23.
Mseleku, C., Ndlela, S.Z, Mkwanazi, M.V., Chimonyo, M., 2019. Health status of non-descript goats travelling long distances to water source. Tropical Animal Health and Production, (In press)
Nyahangare, E.T., Mvumi, B.M., Mutibvu, T., 2015. Ethnoveterinary plants and practices used for ecto parasites control in semi-arid smallholder farming of Zimbabwe. Journal of Ethnobiology & Ethnomedicine, 11, 2-16.
Nyangiwe, N., Horak, I.G., 2007. Goats as alternative hosts of cattle ticks. Onderstepoort J Vet Res, 74: 1–7.
Sanhokwe, M., Mupangwa, J., Masika, P.J., Maphosa, V., Muchenje, V., 2016. Medicinal plants used to control internal and external parasites in goats. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, 1,1-7.
SAS (2013). SAS/STAT Software Release 9.3. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, North Carolina, USA.
Tariq, A., Mussarat, S., Adam, M,, AbdElsalam, N.M., Ullah, R., Latif Khan, A., 2014. Ethno veterinary study of medicinal plants in a Tribal Society of Sulaiman Range. The Scientific World Journal. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/127526.
The authors appreciate the University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg Campus for providing the logistics needed for the study. We are grateful to the community of Jozini and livestock keepers for their contribution throughout the study. Co-operation of participants and the chairperson of Jozini Livestock Association, Mr M. Nkosi, is greatly acknowledged.
The study was funded by the National Research Foundation (NRF) of the Republic of South Africa at the University of KwaZulu-Natal (Project name: Exploring indigenous knowledge systems, GUN: 112406). The funding covered all the aspect of logistics from data collection, analysis and the writing of the manuscript.
The experimental procedures were performed according to the written ethical guidelines specified by the Certification of Authorization to Experiment on Living Humans provided by the Social Sciences—Humanities & Social Sciences Research Ethics Committee (Reference No: HSS/0852/017).
Consent to publish
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Mkwanazi, M.V., Ndlela, S.Z. & Chimonyo, M. Utilisation of indigenous knowledge to control ticks in goats: a case of KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. Trop Anim Health Prod 52, 1375–1383 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-019-02145-0
- ethno-veterinary remedies