Tropical Animal Health and Production

, Volume 51, Issue 7, pp 1807–1815 | Cite as

Risk factors associated with Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae and morbillivirus infection in small ruminants in Tanzania

  • Andrew ChotaEmail author
  • Gabriel Shirima
  • Lughano Kusiluka
Regular Articles
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Dairy Science and Health in the Tropics


Mortality of domestic small ruminants caused by contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) and Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is frequently reported in Tanzania. A cross-sectional survey was conducted between June, 2016 and July, 2017 to identify risk factors for small ruminants exposure to Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (M. capripneumoniae), the causative agent of CCPP, and small ruminant morbillivirus (SRMV), the causative agent of PPR. Antibody detection was done using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (cELISA); similarly, a semi-structured questionnaire was administered in flocks where serum samples were collected. Individual seropositivity for M. capripneumoniae was 6.5% (n = 676) and 4.2% (n = 285) in goats and sheep respectively, whereas SRMV was 28.6% in goats (n = 676) and 31.9% in sheep (n = 285). Multivariable analysis indicated that mixing of flocks was a risk factor for exposure to M. capripneumoniae (χ2 = 3.9, df = 1, p = 0.05) and SRMV (χ2 = 6.3, df = 1, p = 0.01) in goats. Age was a protective factor for SRMV seropositivity in both goats (χ2 = 7.4, df = 1, p = 0.006) and sheep (χ2 = 10.2, df = 1, p = 0.006). SRMV seropositivity in goats was also influenced by grazing in contact with wild animals (χ2 = 5.9, df = 1, p = 0.02) and taking animals to the animal markets (χ2 = 8.2, df = 1, p = 0.004). M. capripneumoniae and SRMV are influenced by several risk factors and their control needs concerted efforts between stakeholders, which may include community involvement in mandatory vaccination and animals’ movement control.


Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia Domestic small ruminants Peste des petits ruminants Risk factors 



The authors are grateful to the support of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation through the Program for Enhancing Health and Productivity in Livestock (PEHPL) at the Nelson Mandela Institution for Science and Technology, Arusha Tanzania, which is sponsoring Andrew Chota’s PhD studies. The comments from Prof. Sarah Cleaveland during the writing of this manuscript are highly acknowledged. The cooperation of the District Veterinary Officers, Livestock Field Officers, and livestock keepers in the study areas is very highly appreciated.

Compliance with ethical standards

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Statement of animal rights

Handling of the animals sampled during the course of this research work followed all the stipulated animal rights as per the Universal Declaration of the Animal Welfare.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individuals participants included in the study.

Supplementary material

11250_2019_1981_MOESM1_ESM.docx (94 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 94 kb)


  1. Baazizi, R., Mahapatra, M., Clarke, B.D., AitOudhia, K., Khelef, D. and Parida, S., 2017. Peste des petits ruminants (PPR): a neglected tropical disease in Maghreb region of North Africa and its threat to Europe, PLoS ONE, 12(4), 1—16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Balamurugan, V., Sen, A., Venkatesan, G., Rajak, K.K., Bhanuprakash, V. and Sing, R.K., 2012. Study on passive immunity: Time of vaccination in kids born to goats vaccinated against Peste des petits ruminants, Virologica Sinica, 27 (4), 228--233CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Banyard, A.C., Parida, S., Batten, C., Oura, C., Kwiatek, O. and Libeau, G., 2010. Global distribution of peste des petits ruminants virus and prospects for improved diagnosis and control, Journal of General Virology, 91(Pt 12), 2885--97CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Baron, M.D., Parida, S. and Oura, C.A.L., 2011. Peste des petits ruminants: a suitable candidate for eradication, Veterinary Records, 169, 16--21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bölske, G., Johansson, K.E., Heinonen, R., Panvuga, P.A. and Twinamasiko, E., 1995. Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia in Uganda and isolation of Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae from goats and sheep, Veterinary Records, 137, 594Google Scholar
  6. Dilli, H.K., Geidam, Y.A. and Egwu, G.O., 2011. Peste des petits ruminants in Nigeria: a review, Nigerian Veterinary Journal, 32(2), 112—119Google Scholar
  7. Dohoo, I., Martin, W. and Stryhn, H., 2009. Veterinary Epidemiologic Research (VER Inc. 2nd Edition)Google Scholar
  8. Emikpe, B.O., Jarikre, T.A. and Eyarefe, O.D. 2013. Retrospective study of disease incidence and type of pneumonia in Nigerian small ruminants in Ibadan, Nigeria, African Journal of Biomedical Research, 16, 107–113Google Scholar
  9. Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO). Impact of livestock diseases. 2013. livestock-diseases. Accessed 03 February 2019
  10. GALVmed Newsletter. Protecting livestock, improving human health: Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia. 2018. https:// www .galvmed .org/ livestock-and-diseases. Accessed 23 October 2018Google Scholar
  11. Gibbs, E., Taylor, W., Lawman, M. and Bryant, J., 1979. Classification of peste des petits ruminants virus as the fourth member of the genus morbillivirus, Intervirology, 11, 268--274CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Hamdy, F.M., Dardiri, A.H., Nduaka, O., Breese, S.S. and Ihemelandu, E.C., 1976. Etiology of the stomatitis pneumoenteritis complex in Nigerian dwarf goats, Canadian Journal of Comparative Medicine, 40 (3), 276–284PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Hosmer, D.W. and Lemeshaw, S. Applied Logistic Regression, Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics. A Wiley Interscience publications, John Wiley and Sons. New York. 1989. Accessed 12 February 2018
  14. ICTV., 2018. International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. 2016. Accessed 10 October 2018
  15. Kgotlele, T., Chota, A.C., Chubwa, C.C., Nyasebwa, O., Lyimo, B., Torsson, E., Karimuribo, E., Kasanga, C.J., Wensman, J.J., Misinzo, G., Shirima, G. and Kusiluka, L., 2018. Detection of peste des petits ruminants and concurrent secondary diseases in sheep and goats in Ngorongoro district, Tanzania, Comparative Clinical Pathology, pages 1–5, Visited February, 02, 2019.
  16. Kipronoh, K.A., Ombui, J.N., Binepal, Y.S., Wesonga, H.O., Gitonga, E.K., Thuranira, E. and Kiara, H.K., 2016. Risk factors associated with contagious caprine pleuropneumonia in goats in pastoral areas in the Rift Valley region of Kenya, Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 132, 107--112CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Kusiluka, L.J.M., Kambarage, D.M., Harrisonb, L.J.S., Dabornc, C.J. and Matthewman, R.W., 1998. Causes of morbidity and mortality in goats in Morogoro district, Tanzania: the influence of management, Small Ruminants Research, 29 (2), 167--172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kusiluka, L.J.M., Semuguruka, W.D., Kazwala, R.R., Ojeniyi, B. and Friis, N.F., 2000. Demonstration of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae and Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small colony type in outbreaks of caprine pleuropneumonia in eastern Tanzania, Acta Veterinaria Scandinavia, 41, 331—319.Google Scholar
  19. Kusiluka, L.J.M., Kimaryo, G.R.M., Kazwala, R.R., Nsengwa, G.R.M. and Kambarage, D.M., 2007. Serological and microbiological studies of caprine pleuropneumonia in selected districts of Tanzania, Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa, 55, 88--99Google Scholar
  20. Kwiatek, O., Ali, Y.H., Saeed, I.K., Khalafalla, A.I., Mohamed, O.I., Obeida A.A., Abdelrahman, M.B., Osman, H.M., Taha, K.M., Abbas, Z., El Harrak, M., Lhor, Y., Diallo, A., Lancelot, R., Albina, E. and Libeau, G., 2011. Asian lineage of peste des petits ruminants virus, Africa, Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17, 1223--1231CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Lefèvre, P.C., John, G.E. and Ojo, M.O., 1987. Pulmonary mycoplasmosis of small ruminants, Rev. Sci. Tech. Off. Int. Epiz, 6 (3), 759--799CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Libeau, G., Prehaud, C., Lancelot, R., Colas, F., Guerre L, Bishop D.H.L. and Diallo, A., (1995). Development of a competitive ELISA for detecting antibodies to the peste des petits ruminants virus using a recombinant nucleoprotein, Research Veterinary Science, 58, 50--55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Litamoi, J.K., Wanyangu, S.W. and Simam, P.K., 1990. Isolation of mycoplasma biotype F38 from sheep in Kenya, Tropical Animal health and Production, 22, 260--262CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. MacOwan, K.J. and Minette J.E., 1976. A mycoplasma from acute contagious caprine pleuropneumonia in Kenya, Tropical Animal health and Production, 8, 91--95CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Mahapatra, M., Sayalel, K., Muniraju, M., Eblate, E., Fyumagwa, R., Shilinde, L., Mdaki, M., Keyyu, J.D., Parida, S. and Kock, R., 2015. Spillover of peste des petits ruminants virus from domestic to wild ruminants in the Serengeti ecosystem, Tanzania, Emerging Infectious Diseases, 21 (12), 2230--2234CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Martin, S.W., Meek, H.A. and Willeberg, P., 1987. Veterinary Epidemiology: Principles and Methods. (Iowa State University press, Ames, Iowa)Google Scholar
  27. Mbyuzi, A.O., Komba, E.V.G., Cordery-Cotter, R., Magwisha, H.B., Kimera, S.I. and Kambarage, D.M., 2015. Descriptive survey of peste des petits ruminants and contagious caprine pleuropneumonia outbreaks in traditional goat flocks in Southern Tanzania: producers’ concerns, knowledge and attitudes, Livestock Research for Rural Development, 27 (71). Accessed 15 March 2017
  28. Msami, H.M., Kapaga, A.M., Bölske, G., Kimaro, R.T., Mundongo, J., and Mbise, A., 1998. Occurrence of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia in Tanzania, Tanzania Veterinary Journal, 18, 285--297Google Scholar
  29. Mwambene, P.L., Mbwile, R.P., Hoeggel, F.U., Kimbi, E.C., Materu, J., Mwaiganju, A. and Madoffe, S., 2014. Assessing dynamics of forced livestock movement, livelihoods and future development options for pastoralists/agro-pastoralist in Ruvuma and Lindi Regions, in the Southern Tanzania. Livestock Research and Rural Development, 26 (4). Accessed 15 March 2017
  30. Ngumbi, A.F. and Silayo, R.S., 2017. A cross-sectional study on the use and misuse of trypanocides in selected pastoral and agropastoral areas of eastern and northeastern Tanzania, Parasite and Vectors, 10, 607. Scholar
  31. Ozdemir, U., Ozdemir, S., March, J.B., Churchwood, C. and Nicholas, R.A.J., 2005. Outbreak of CCPP in the Thrace region of Turkey, Veterinary Records, 156, 286--287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Peyraud, A., Poumarat, F., Tardy, F., Manso-Silvan, L., Hamroev, K., Tiloev, T., Amirbekov, M., Tounkara, K., Bodjo, C., Wesonga, H., Nkando, I., Jenberie, J., Yami, M., Cardinale, E., Meenowa, D., Jaumally, MR., Yaqub, T., Shabbir, M.Z., Mukhtar, N., Halimi, M., Ziay, GM., Shauwers, W., Noori, H., Rajabu, AM., Ostrowski, S. and Thiaucourt, F., 2014. An International collaborative study to determine the prevalence of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia by monoclonal antibody based cELISA, Veterinary Research, 10, 48PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. R Core Team. R. A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing Vienna, Austria. 2018. Accessed 13 May 2018
  34. Shija, D.S.N., Kusiluka, L.J.M., Chenyambuga, S.W., Shayo, D. and Lekule F.P., 2014. Animal Health constraints in dairy goats kept under smallholder farming systems in Kongwa and Mvomero Districts in Tanzania, Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health, 6 (11), 268--279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Thiaucourt, F. and Bölske, G., 1996. Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia and other pulmonary mycoplasmoses of sheep and goats, Rev. Sci. Tech. Off. Int. Epiz, 15, 1397--1414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Thiaucourt, F., Bölske, G., Libeau, G., Le Goff, C. and Lefevre, P.C., 1994. The use of monoclonal antibodies in the diagnosis of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP), Veterinary Microbiology, 41, 191--203CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Thiaucourt, F., Bölske, G., Leneguersh, B., Smith, D. and Wesonga, H., 1996. Diagnosis and control of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia, Rev. sci. tech. Off. int. Epiz, 15(4), 1415--1429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. United Republic of Tanzania (URT). The national sample census survey: agriculture and small holder agriculture regional report. 2012. Accessed 7 July 2018
  39. United Republic of Tanzania (URT). National Bureau of Statistics: Population and housing census of 2012. 2013. Accessed 7 July 2018
  40. World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) and Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO). Global control and eradication of peste des petits ruminants: Investing in veterinary systems, food security and poverty alleviation. 2015. Accessed 21 Oct 2018

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Tanzania Veterinary Laboratory Agency (TVLA)Dar es SalaamTanzania
  2. 2.Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology (NM-AIST)ArushaTanzania
  3. 3.Mzumbe University (MU)MzumbeTanzania

Personalised recommendations