The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of fasciolosis and investigate the associated risk factors (sex, age, and season) in slaughtered cattle of the Mitidja area. This survey also aimed to compare three diagnostic methods: liver inspection, microscopic bile examination, and ELISA test. Liver and bile of 1400 cattle were examined for the presence of adult and eggs of Fasciola hepatica, respectively. Based on the results obtained by liver and bile examination, a subset of 206 cattle from the 1400 was selected for antibodies detection using the ELISA test. Liver inspection and microscopic bile examination showed prevalences of 2.86% and 5.50%, respectively. The difference between the two methods was highly significant (p < 0.001). The overall prevalence of bovine fasciolosis found by both methods was 6.07%. The disease was more prevalent in females (11.96%) than in males (2.43%), and in older cattle (12.30%) than in younger ones (2.36%). The ELISA test showed some conflicting results: 23.61% of cattle previously diagnosed positive with liver inspection and bile examination were found seronegative, and 3.73% of cattle previously diagnosed negative were found to be seropositive. The sensitivity and specificity of microscopic bile examination were respectively 80% (CI 65.2–89.5%) and 96.7% (CI 95.6–97.5%) as compared with the liver inspection. Likewise, this same method has a sensitivity of 81.36% (CI 69.6–89.3%) and a specificity of 88.97% (CI 82.8–93.1%) as compared with the ELISA test. Our results show that microscopic bile examination is able to detect more infected cattle than liver inspection. In addition to being simple, fast, inexpensive, sensitive, and specific, it is an effective method for the diagnosis of fasciolosis.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Ahmadi, N.A., Meshkehkar, M., 2010. prevalence and long term trend of liver fluke infections in sheep, goats and cattle slaughtered in Khuzestan, Southwestern Iran, Journal of Paramedical Sciences, 1, 26--31
Aissi, M., Harhoura, K.H., Gaid, S., Hamrioui, B., 2009. Étude préliminaire sur la prévalence de la fasciolose due à Fasciola hepatica dans quelques élevages bovins du nord centre algérien (la Mitidja), Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique, 102, 177--178
Alvarez-Rojas, C.A., Jex, A.R., Gasser, R.B., Scheerlinck, J.P.Y., 2014.Techniques for the diagnosis of Fasciola infections in animals, Advances in Parasitology, 85, 65--107
Arafa, W.M., Hassan, A.I., Snousi, S.A.M., El-Dakhly, K.M., Holman, P.J., Craig, T.M., Aboelhadid, S.M., 2017. Fasciola hepatica infections in cattle and the freshwater snail Galba truncatula from Dakhla Oasis, Egypt, Journal of Helminthology, 92, 56--63
Arias, M., Lomba, C., Dacal, V., Vazquez, L., Pedreira, J., Francisco, I., Pineiro, P., Cazapal-Monteiro, C., Suarez, J.L., Diez-Banos, P., Morrondo, P., Sanchez-Andrade, R., Paz-Silva, A., 2011. Prevalence of mixed trematode infections in an abattoir receiving cattle from northern Portugal and north-west Spain, Veterinary Record, 168, 408
Ayad, A., Benhanifia, M., Balla, E.H., Moussouni, L., Ait-Yahia, F., Benakhla, A., 2019. A retrospective survey of fasciolosis and hydatidosis in domestic ruminants based on abattoirs’ data in Bejaia province, Algeria, Veterinaria, 68, 47--51
Bayou, K., Geda, T., 2018. Prevalence of bovine fasciolosis and its associated risk Factors in Haranfama municipal abattoir, Girja District, South-Eastern Ethiopia, SM Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science 1, 1003
Belfaiza, M., Moncef, M., Rondelaud, D., 2005. Premières investigations sur les populations de Galba truncatula (Mollusca Gastropoda : Lymnaeidae), le mollusque hôte de Fasciola hepatica, dans le secteur irrigué des Doukkala (nord-ouest du Maroc), Revue de Médecine Vétérinaire, 156, 606--611
Boucheikhchoukh, M., Righi, S., Sedraoui, S., Mekroud, A., Benakhla, A., 2012. Principales helminthoses des bovins: enquête épidémiologique au niveau de deux abattoirs de la région d’El Tarf (Algérie), Tropicultura, 30, 167--172
Braun, U., Gerber, D., 1992. Percutaneous ultrasound-guided cholecystocentesis in cows, American Journal of Veterinary Research, 53, 1079--1084
Braun, U., Wolfensberger, R., Hertzberg, H., 1995. Diagnosis of liver flukes in cows--a comparison of the findings in the liver, in the feces, and in the bile, Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde, 137, 438—444
Byrne, A.W., McBride, S., Lahuerta-Marin, A., Guelbenzu, M., McNair, J., Skuce, R.A., McDowell, S.W.J., 2016. Liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica) infection in cattle in Northern Ireland: a large-scale epidemiological investigation utilising surveillance data, Parasites &Vectors, 9, 209
Castro, E., Freyre, A., Hernandez, Z., 2000. Serological responses of cattle after treatment and during natural re-infection with Fasciola hepatica measured using a dot-ELISA system, Veterinary Parasitology, 90, 201--208
Chaouadi, M., Harhoura, K.H., Aissi, M., Boutellis, A., Tazerouti, F., 2018. First abattoir report on bovine dicrocoeliosis from Algiers (Algeria),Veterinaria, 67, 145--147
Charlier, J., Hostens, M., Jacobs, J., Van Ranst, B., Duchateau, L., Vercruysse, J., 2012. Integrating fasciolosis control in the dry cow management: the effect of closantel treatment on milk production, PLos One, 7, e43216
Charlier, J., Vercruysse, J., Morgan, E., Van Dijk, J., Williams, D.J.L., 2014. Recent advances in the diagnosis, impact on production and prediction of Fasciola hepatica in cattle, Parasitology, 141, 326--335
Dutra, L.H., Molento, M.B., Naumann, C.R.C., Biondo, A.W., Fortes, F.S., Savio, D., Malone, J.B., 2010. Mapping risk of bovine fasciolosis in the south of Brazil using Geographic Information Systems, Veterinary Parasitology, 169, 76--81
Gimard, G., 2001. Fasciolose bovine: enquête épidémiologique en abattoir et évaluation de la sensibilité des tests sérologiques, (unpublished PhD thesis, University of Nantes)
Hamed, N., Ayadi, A., Hammami, H., 2014. Epidemiological studies on fasciolosis in northern Tunisia, Revue de Médecine Vétérinaire, 165, 49--56
Kaplan R.M., 2001. Fasciola hepatica: a review of the economic impact in cattle and considerations for control, Veterinary Therapeutics, 2, 40--50
Kara, M., Gicik, Y., Sari, B., Bulut, H., Arslan, M.O., 2009. A Slaughterhouse study on prevalence of Some Helminths of Cattle and Sheep in Malatya Province, Turkey, Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 8, 2200--2205
Khanjari, A., Partovi, R., Abbaszadeh, S., Nemati, G., Bahonar, A., Misaghi, A., Akhondzadeh-Basti, A., Alizadeh-Ilanjegh, A., Motaghifar, A., 2010. A retrospective survey of fasciolosis and dicrocoeliosis in slaughtered animals in Meisam Abattoir, Tehran, Iran (2005-2008), Veterinary Research Forum 1, 174--178
Levieux, D., Levieux, A., Mage, C., Garel, J.P., 1992. Immunological detection of chemotherapeutic success in bovine fascioliasis using the specific antigen F2, Veterinary Parasitology, 45, 81--88
Linnaeus, C., 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, Secundum Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species, cum Characteribus, Differentiis, Synonymis, Locis. (ed.10). Stockholm, Sweden, 1, 641
Lyaji, F., Yaro, C., Peter, M., Abutu, A., 2018. Fasciola hepatica and associated parasite, Dicrocoelium dendriticum in slaughterhouses in Anyigba, Kogi State, Nigeria, Advances in Infectious Diseases, 8, 1--9
Martinez-Moreno, A., Jimenez, V., Martinez-Cruz, M.S., Martinez-Moreno, F.J., Becerra, C., Hernandez, S., 1997. Triclabendazole treatment in experimentally infected goat fasciolosis: anthelmintic efficacy and influence in antibody response and pathophysiology of the disease, Veterinary Parasitology, 68, 57--67
Mas-Coma, S., Bargues, M.D., Valero, M.A., 2005. Fascioliasis and other plant-borne trematode zoonoses, International Journal for Parasitology, 35, 1255--1278
Mazeri, S., Sargison, N., Kelly, R.F., Bronsvoort, B.M.dC., Handel, I., 2016. Evaluation of the performance of five diagnostic tests for Fasciola hepatica infection in naturally infected cattle using a Bayesian no gold standard approach, Plos One, 11, e0161621
Mehmood, K., Hui, Z., Sabir, A.J., Abbas, R.Z., Ijaz, M., Durrani, A.Z., Saleem, M.H., Rehman, M.U., Iqbal, M.K., Wang, Y., Ahmad, H.I., Abbas, T., Hussain, R., Ghori, M.T., Ali, S., Khan, A.U., Li, J., 2017. A review on epidemiology, global prevalence and economical losses of fasciolosis in ruminants, Microbial Pathogenesis, 109, 253--262
Meissonnier, E., Mage, C., 2007. Methods of detection of Fasciola hepatica in cattle in France, Bulletin de l’Académie Vétérinaire de France, 160, 395--406
Mekroud, A., Benakhla, A., Vignoles, P., Rondelaud, D., Dreyfuss, G., 2004. Preliminary studies on the prevalences of natural fasciolosis in cattle, sheep, and the host snail (Galba truncatula) in north-eastern Algeria, Parasitology Research, 92, 502--505
Mekroud, A., Titi, A., Benakhla, A., Rondelaud, D., 2006. The proportion of liver excised in Algerian abattoirs is not a good indicator of Fasciola hepatica infections in local cattle breeds, Journal of Helminthology, 803, 19--321
Merdas-Ferhati, H., Haloui, M., Chouba, I., Tahraoui, A., 2014. Epidemiological survey of fasciolosis among cattle in region of Annaba, Algeria, Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, 22, 924--927
Miller, H.R.P., 1990. Réponse immunitaire au parasitisme interne, Revue Scientifique et Technique de l’Office Internationale des Epizooties, 9, 315--329
Ouchene-Khelifi, N.A., Ouchene, N., Dahmani, H., Dahmani, A., Sadi, M., Douifi, M., 2018. Fasciolosis due to Fasciola hepatica in ruminants in abattoirs and its economic impact in two regions in Algeria, Tropical Biomedicine, 35, 181--187
Radfar, M.H., Nourollahi-Fard, S.R., Mohammadyari, N., 2013. Bovine fasciolosis: prevalence, relationship between faecal egg count and worm burden and its economic impact due to liver condemnation at Rudsar abattoir, Northern Iran, Journal of Parasitic Diseases, 39, 522--525
Rapsch, C., Schweizer, G., Grimm, F., Kohler, L., Bauer, C., Deplazes, P., Braun, U., Torgerson, P.R., 2006. Estimating the true prevalence of Fasciola hepatica in cattle slaughtered in Switzerland in the absence of an absolute diagnostic test, International Journal for Parasitololy, 36, 1153--1158
Rezaul Karim, Md., Mahmud, M.S., Giasuddin, Md., 2015. Epidemiological study of bovine fasciolosis: prevalence and risk factor assessment at Shahjadpur Upazila of Bangladesh, Immunology and Infectious Diseases, 3, 25--29
Selemetas, N., Ducheyne, E., Phelan, P., O’Kiely, P., Hendrickx, G., De Waal, T., 2015. Spatial analysis and risk mapping of Fasciola hepatica infection in dairy herds in Ireland, Geospatial Health, 9, 281
Torgerson, P. and Claxton, J., 1999. Epidemiology and control. In J.P. Dalton (Ed), Fasciolosis, CAB International Publishing, Dublin, 113—149
Tsega, M., Dereso, S., Getu, A., 2015. A Review on Ruminant Fasciolosis, Open Access Library Journal, 2: e1655.
Yildirim, A., Ica, A., Duzlu, O., Inci, A., 2007. Prevalence and risk factors associated with Fasciola hepatica in cattle from Kayseri province, Turkey, Revue de Médecine Vétérinaire, 158, 613—617
We express our thanks and gratitude to Pr. Hamrioui (CHU-Mustapha) for welcoming us and providing us work equipment. We extend our sincere appreciation to Dr. Boutellis (USTHB) for her guidance and support. Finally, the authors also thank Mr. Chouchane and Mr. Bouchtout for the English revision.
This work was supported by the Laboratory Research Animal Health and Production, Superior National Veterinary School, Algiers, Algeria.
The manuscript does not contain clinical studies or patient data.
This study was not performed on live animals but only on post-mortem ones, in slaughterhouses. So, the animals are slaughtered in accordance with the Algerian regulations in force (Interministerial order dated 17 March 2014 and published in the Official Journal of the Algerian Republic No. 15).
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
This study was conducted between February 2016 and February 2017 on cattle slaughtered in the Mitidja area (north center of Algeria).
About this article
Cite this article
Chaouadi, M., Harhoura, K., Aissi, M. et al. A post-mortem study of bovine fasciolosis in the Mitidja (north center of Algeria): prevalence, risk factors, and comparison of diagnostic methods. Trop Anim Health Prod 51, 2315–2321 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-019-01951-w