Prevalence and distribution of Trypanosoma evansi in camels in Somaliland


The prevalence and distribution of Trypanosoma evansi (T. evansi) infection on camels in Somaliland were studied using the card agglutination test (CATT/T. evansi). A total of 2575 camels were surveyed. The overall animal-level apparent (test) prevalence in Somaliland was 26.4%. The prevalence was highest in the Sahil Region (37.3%) followed by Togdheer (28.4%), Sanaag (27.4%), and Sool (26.2%). There was a significant difference in the seroprevalence between the regions (χ2 = 35.2, df = 1, P < 0.001) with the prevalence being significantly higher in Sahil than in Woqooyi Galbeed and Awdal, respectively. Camels from the eastern districts were two times more likely to be infected than camels from the western districts (P < 0.001). Herds in the coastal area were also more likely to be infected (37.0%) than herds from the inland areas (26.9%).The seroprevalence varied significantly between body condition score groups (P < 0.001) with the highest seroprevalence in camels of poor body condition (39.5%) and the lowest in camels of good body condition (18.4%) score. Animals in poor body condition were almost three times more likely to be positive than animals in good body condition (OR = 2.9; 95% CI 2.2, 3.8).

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The authors thanked the Ministry of Livestock of Somaliland for facilitating the study. We would like to acknowledge the cooperation of pastoralist and field technical staff for their considerable support and help. We are grateful for the technical support by Dr. Mohamed F. Dirie and the Somali Animal Health Services Project (Somaliland office) who willingly collaborated in the implementation of this study. We also wish to thank Sheikh Technical Veterinary School for their technical assistance.


This study was funded by Murdoch University and the International Foundation for Science (IFS) (financial supports from IFS grant number B/5121).

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Salah, A.A., Robertson, I. & Mohamed, A.S. Prevalence and distribution of Trypanosoma evansi in camels in Somaliland. Trop Anim Health Prod 51, 2371–2377 (2019).

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  • Trypanosoma evansi
  • Prevalence
  • Distribution
  • Pastoral camel production