The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) fruit peel powder (RP) on fermentation characteristics, rumen microorganisms, and in vitro gas production. Three levels of crude protein (CP) in the concentrate (14%, 16%, and 18% CP) and supplementation of rambutan peel powder (0, 2, 4, and 6% of the total dietary substrate) were designed for treatments according to 3 × 4 factorial arrangement in a completely randomized design (CRD). The rumen fluid samples were collected from two-fistulated dairy bulls which had been fed on rice straw with concentrate to adjust the rumen environment. The ratio of roughage (R) and concentrate (C) at 60:40 was used, and all ingredients were added according to the mentioned ratio, respectively. Under this study, supplementation of CP at different levels in the concentrate diet significantly altered (P < 0.05) rumen NH3-N at 6 and after 12 h of incubation, whereas the rumen pH was not significantly changed with CP and RP supplementation levels at any times of incubation. The rumen pH was declined at 18% CP at 6 h of incubation time, as compared to 14 and 16% CP with 0% RP supplementation. The CP and RP supplementation could enhance and maintain the rumen pH during incubation to the optimum condition. The RP supplementation significantly doubled bacterial population while reduced protozoal population; however, fungal zoospores were not altered with CP and RP supplementation. The ruminal propionate (C3) production was remarkably higher (P < 0.05) by the RP and CP supplementation. The ratio of acetate to propionate (C2:C3) was decreased (P < 0.05) with RP supplementation. Meanwhile, rumen methane (CH4) production was significantly reduced by the RP supplementation. In addition, high level of RP supplementation (6% of total substrate) also significantly decreased the cumulative gas production and the in vitro true digestibility (%IVTDMD). Level of CP had no effect on rumen fermentation while interactive effects of CP level and RP supplementation were not found. This current study indicated that RP supplementation could suppress protozoal population, mitigate methane production, and improve rumen fermentation.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Aditya, S., 2011. The effect of rambutan peel (Nephelium lappaceum) as reducing agent on in vitro methane production within creating environment friendly farming. In: Köfer J, Schobesberger H, editors. Animal hygiene and sustainable livestock production. Proceedings of the XVth international congress on animal hygiene;July 3–7; Vienna, Austria.
Ampapon, T., Wanapat, M. and Kang, S., 2016. Rumen metabolism of swamp buffaloes fed rice straw supplemented with cassava hay and urea. Trop. Anim. Health and Prod., 48,779–784.
Anantasook, N., Wanapat M., Cherdthong, A. and Gunun, P., 2013. Effect of plants containing secondary compounds with palm oil on feed Intake, digestibility, microbial protein synthesis and microbial population in dairy cows. Asian Australas. J. Anim. Sci., 26(6) ,820–826 June 2013. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2012.12689
Anantasook, N., Wanapat, M., Cherdthong, A. and Gunun, P., 2015. Effect of tannins and saponins in Samanea saman on rumen environment, milk yield and milk composition in lactating dairy cows. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr., 99, 335–344. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/jpn.12198
AOAC. International, 1995. Official method of analysis, animal feeds. 16th edn. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA, USA.
Bhatta, R., 2015. Reducing enteric methane emission using plant secondary metabolites. Climate Change Impact on Livestock: Adaptation and Mitigation 273–284.
Burns, R.E., 1971. Method for estimation of tannin in the grain sorghum. Agron. J., 163: 511–512.
Cieslak, A., Szumacher-Strabel, M., Stochmal, A. and Oleszek, W., 2013. Plant components with specific activities against rumen methanogens. Anim., 7:s2, 253–265. doi:https://doi.org/10.1017/S1751731113000852
Foiklang, S., Wanapat, M. and Norrapoke, T., 2016. In vitro rumen fermentation and digestibility of buffaloes as influenced by grape pomace powder and urea treated rice straw supplementation. Anim. Sci., 87, 370–377. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/asj.12428
Galyean, M., 1989. Laboratory procedure in animal nutrition research. Department of Animal and Range Sciences, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM.
Goodland, R. and Anhang, J., 2009. Livestock and climate change. World watch 22(6),10.
Gunun, P., Gunun, N., Cherdthong, A., Wanapat, M., Polyorach, S., Sirilaophaisan, S., Wachirapakorn, C. and Kang, S., 2017. In vitro rumen fermentation and methane production as affected by rambutan peel powder. J. App. Anim. Res., 0974-1844. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/09712119.2017.1371608
Hristov, A.N., Ott, T., Tricarico, J., Rotz, A., Waghorn, G., Adesogan, A., Dijkstra, J., Montes, F., Oh, J., Kebreab, E., Oosting, S.J., Gerber, P.J., Henderson, B., Makkar, H.P.S. and Firkins, J.L. 2013. Mitigation of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from animal operations: III. A review of animal management mitigation options. J. Anim. Sci., 91(11): 5095–5113
Kamra, D.N., Patra, A.K., Chatterjee, P.N., Kumar, R., Agarwal, N. and Chaudhary, L.C., 2008. Effect of plant extracts on methanogenesis and microbial profile of the rumen of buffalo: a brief overview. Aust. J. Exp. Agric., 48,175–178.
Kamra, D.N., Agarwal, N. and Chaudhary, L.C. 2015. Manipulation of rumen microbial ecosystem for reducing enteric methane emission in livestock. Climate Change Impact on Livestock: Adaptation and Mitigation pp 255–272.
Kang, S., Wanapat, M., Phesatcha, K. and Norrapoke, T., 2015. Effect of protein level and urea in concentrate mixture on feed intake and rumen fermentation in swamp buffaloes fed rice straw-based diet. Trop. Anim. Health Prod., 47, 671. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-015-0777-8
Makkar, H.P.S., 2003. Tannin assays, effects and fate of tannins, and strategies to overcome detrimental effects of feeding tannin-rich tree and shrub foliage. Small Rumin. Res., 49, 241–256. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0921-4488(03)00142-1
Makkar, H.P.S., Blummel, M. and Becker, K., 1995. Formation of complexes between polyvinyl pyrrolidones or polyethylene glycols and tannins, and their implication in gas production and true digestibility in in vitro techniques. British J.Nutr., 73, 897–913. doi:https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN19950095.
McSweeney, C.S., Palmer, B., McNeill, D.M. and Krause, D.O., 2001. Microbial interactions with tannins: nutritional consequences for ruminants. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 91, 83–93. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(01)00232-2
Moss, A. R., Jouany, J. P. and Newbold, J., 2000. Methane production by ruminants: its contribution to global warming. Ann. de Zootechn., 49, 231–253. https://doi.org/10.1051/animres:2000119
Ørskov, E.R. and McDonald, I., 1979. The estimation of protein degradability in the rumen from incubation measurements weighted according to rate of passage. J. Agr. Sci., 92, 499–503. doi:https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859600063048
Paengkoum, P., Phonmun, T., Liang, J.B., Huang, X.D., Tan, H.Y. and Jahromi, M.F., 2015. Molecular weight, protein binding affinity and methane mitigation of condensed tannins form mangosteen-peel (Garcinia mangostana L). Asian-Australas. J. Anim. Sci., 28,1442–1448
Patra, A.K. and Saxena, J., 2009. Dietary phytochemicals as rumen modifiers: a review of the effects on microbial populations. Ant. van Leeuwenh., 96(4), 363–375. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10482-009-9364-1
Patra, A.K., Kamra, D.N. and Agarwal, N., 2006. Effect of plant extracts on in vitro methanogenesis, enzyme activities and fermentation of feed in rumen liquor of buffalo. Anim. Feed. Sci. Technol., 128, 276–291. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2005.11.001
Pilajun, R. and Wanapat, M., 2013. Microbial population in the rumen of swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) as influenced by coconut oil and mangosteen peel supplementation. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr., 97, 439–445. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0396.2012.01279.x
Poungchompu, O., Wanapat, M., Wachirapakorn, C., Wanapat, S. and Cherdthong, A., 2009. Manipulation of ruminal fermentation and methane production by dietary saponins and tannins from mangosteen peel and soapberry fruit. Arch. Anim. Nutr., 63, 389–400. https://doi.org/10.1080/17450390903020406
Samuel, M., Sagathewan, S., Thomas, J. and Mathen, G., 1997. An HPLC method for estimation of volatile fatty acids of ruminal fluid. Ind. J. Anim. Sci. 67, 805–811.
SAS. (Statistical Analysis System), 2013. User’s Guide: Statistic, Version 9.4th Edition. SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC.
Shokryzadan, P., Rajion, M. A., Goh, Y. M., Ishak, I., Ramlee, M. F., Faseleh, J. M. and Ebrahimi, M., 2016. Mangosteen peel can reduce methane production and rumen biohydrogenation in vitro. South African J. Anim. Sci., 46, 4. https://doi.org/10.4314/sajas.v46i4.10
Steinfeld, H., Gerber, P., Wassenaar, T., Castel, V., Rosales, M. and de Haan, C., 2006. Livestock’s Long Shadow: Environmental Issues and Options. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
Sun, L., Zhang, H. and Zhuang, Y., 2012. Preparation of free, soluble conjugate, and insoluble-bound phenolic compounds from peels of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) and evaluation of antioxidant activities in vitro. J. Food Sci., 77,198–204. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2011.02548.x
Thitilertdecha, N., Teerawutgulrag, A. and Rakariyatham, N., 2008. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Nephelium lappaceum L. extracts. LWT - Food Sci. Technol., 41, 2029–2035. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2008.01.017
Van Soest, P.J. and Robertson, J.B., 1991. Lewis BA. Methods for dietary fiber neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J. Dairy Sci., 74, 3583-3597. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(91)78551-2
Van Soest, P.J. and Robertson, J.B., 1985. A laboratory manual for animal science. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY.
Wallace, R.J., 2004. Antimicrobial properties of plant secondary metabolites. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 63, 621–629.
Wallace, R.J., McEvan, N.R., McIntosh, F.M., Teferedegne, B. and Newbold, C.J., 2002. Natural products as manipulators of rumen fermentation. Asian-Australas. J. Anim. Sci., 15, 1458–1468. doi: https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2002.1458
Wanapat, M., 2000. Rumen manipulation to increase the efficiency use of local feed resources and productivity of ruminants in tropics. Asian-Australas. J. Anim. Sci., 13, 59–67.
Wanapat, M. and Pimpa, O., 1999. Effect of ruminal NH3-N levels on ruminal fermentation, purine derivatives, digestibility and rice straw intake in swamp buffaloes. Asian-Australas. J. Anim. Sci., 12, 904–907. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.1999.904
Wanapat, M., Poungchompu, O., 2001. Method for Estimation of Tannin by Vanillin-HCL Method (A Modified Method of Burns, 1971). Department of Animal Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 4002, Thailand.
Wanapat, M., Chanthakhoun, V., Phesatcha, K. and Kang, S., 2014. Influence of mangosteen peel powder as a source of plant secondary compounds on rumen microorganisms, volatile fatty acids, methane and microbial protein synthesis in swamp buffaloes. Livest. Sci., 162, 126–133. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2014.01.025
Authors would like to express their most sincere thanks to Tropical Feed Resources Research and Development Center (TROFREC), Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand and the Thailand Research Fund (TRF) through the International Research Network (IRN) program (TRF-IRN57W0002) and TRF-IRG598001 for their kind support on research fund and facility used.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Research involving human participants and/or animals
All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Ampapon, T., Wanapat, M. Rambutan fruit peel powder and dietary protein level influencing on fermentation characteristics, nutrient digestibility, ruminal microorganisms and gas production using in vitro fermentation techniques. Trop Anim Health Prod 51, 1489–1496 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-019-01837-x
- Fruit waste