Tropical Animal Health and Production

, Volume 51, Issue 2, pp 267–277 | Cite as

Potential of leaf and seeds of tropical plants in chicken diets: effect on spermatozoa and egg production

  • I. P. OgbuewuEmail author
  • C. A. Mbajiorgu


The projected human population growth of 9 billion by the year 2050 has placed greater demand on food security. This calls for an increased supply of foods, especially of animal origin in order to prevent food scarcity in the future. Poultry which would have been a solution to this increased demand for foods of animal origin had suffered from the rising costs of conventional feed ingredients, and this emphasizes the interest to develop local feedstuffs. In view of this, there is increased interest by livestock farmers especially in developing countries to harness the potential of leaf and seeds of tropical browse plants. Data abound that leaf and seed meal of tropical plants are rich in beneficial nutrients and phytochemicals. From previous studies, it can be deduced that leaf and seed meal of tropical browse plants improve chicken performance, but their use in animal feed has been limited owing to constraints imposed by antinutrient factors (ANFs). In this review, the biochemistry of leaf and seed meal of tropical plants, mechanism of actions, methodologies for detoxifying their ANFs, and their effect on chicken reproduction is discussed.


Chickens Novel feeds Chemical composition Processing Feeding Reproduction parameters 



The authors are grateful to their colleagues for their technical support.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.


  1. Abu-Tarboush, H. M. 1998. Irradiation inactivation of some antinutritional factors in plant seeds. Journal of Agriculture, and Food Chemistry, 46, 2698–2702.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Achonwa, C. C. 2016. Socio-cultural and physicochemical studies of factors associated with Ficus microcarpa as small ruminant feedstuff at Nnobi, Southeastern Nigeria, MSc. Thesis. Federal University of Technology Owerri, Owerri.Google Scholar
  3. Adamu, H. Y., Lamidi, O. S., Ehoche, O. W., Abdu, S. B., Hassan, M. R. and Yashim, S. M. 2013. Growth performance of Yankasa rams fed varying proportions of Gmelina arborea leaves. Nigerian Journal of Animal Science, 15,145–154.Google Scholar
  4. Adekanmi, O. K., Oluwatooyin, O. F., Adebowale, A. 2009. Influence of processing techniques on the nutrients and antinutrients of Tigernut (Cyperus esculentus L.) World Journal of Dairy and Food Science, 4 (2), 88–93Google Scholar
  5. Aletor, V. A. 1993. Allelochemicals in plant foods and feeding stuffs. Part I. Nutritional, biochemical and physiopathological aspects in animal production. Veterinary and Human Toxicology, 35(1), 57–67.Google Scholar
  6. Aletor, VA 1999. Anti-nutritional factors as nature’s paradox in food and nutrition securities. Inaugural Lecture Series 15, delivered at The Federal University of Technology, Akure (FUTA), on Thursday, August 12.Google Scholar
  7. Aletor, V. A. and Onibi, O. E. 1990. The use of oyster shell as calcium supplement. Part I. Effect on the utilization of gossypol-containing cottonseed cake by the chicken Die Nahrung Food, 34(4), 311–319.Google Scholar
  8. Ali, M. N., Hassan, M. S. and Abd El-Ghany, F. A. 2007. Effect of strain, type of natural antioxidant and sulphate ion on productive, physiological and hatching performance of native laying hens. International Journal of Poultry Science, 6,539–554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Amaefule, K. U. and Obioha, F. C. 2001. Performance of broiler starters fed raw and boiled pigeon pea seed meal. Nigerian Journal Animal Production, 28:34–40.Google Scholar
  10. An, B. K. I., Jung, J. H. I., Oh, S. T. I., Kang, C. W. I., Lee, K. W. I. and Lee, S. R. I. 2016. Effects of diets with graded levels of canola meal on the growth performance, meat qualities, relative organ weights, and blood characteristics of broiler chickens. Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science, 18(2), 351–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ansari, J., Khan, S. H., ul Haq, A. and Yousaf, M. 2012. Effect of the levels of Azadirachta indica dried leaf meal as phytogenic feed additive on the growth performance and haemato-biochemical parameters in broiler chicks. Journal of Applied Animal Research, 40(4), 336–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Banaszkiewicz, T. 2000. Nutritive value of newrape cultivars stated in the tests for broiler chickens. Thesis University of Podlasie, No. 61, 1–99.Google Scholar
  13. Bitto, I. I., Sende, C. T. and Eze, P. U. 2000. Preliminary investigations on to the effect of cassava peel meal on testicular morphometry and some biochemical characteristics of serum in cockerels. Global Journal Pure and Applied Science, 6(2), 161–165.Google Scholar
  14. Bonsu, F. R. K., Kagya-Agyemang, J. K., Kwenin, W. K. J. and Zanu, H. K. 2012. Medicinal response of broiler chickens to diets containing neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) leaf meal, haematology and meat sensory analysis. World Applied Science Journal, 19,800–805.Google Scholar
  15. Canogullari, S., Baylan, M., Erdogan, Z., Duzguner, V. and Kucukgul, A. 2010. The effects of dietary garlic powder on performance, egg yolk and serum cholesterol concentrations in laying quails. Czech Journal of Animal Science, 55, 286–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Carew, L. B. and Garnet, A. G. 2006. Use of velvet beans (Mucuna spp) as a feed ingredient for poultry: a review. World’s Poultry Science Journal, 62,131–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Carew, L. B., Alster, F. A. and Garnet, A. G. 1998 Consumption of raw velvet beans (Mucuna pruriens) alters organ weights and intestinal lengths in broilers. Poultry Science, 77,56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chauynarong, S., Elangovan, A. V. and Iji, P. A. 2009. The potential of cassava products in diets for poultry. World’s Poultry Science Journal, 65, 23–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Chunmei, G., Hongbin, P., Zewei, S. and Guixin, Q. 2010. Effect of soybean variety on anti-nutritional factors content, and growth performance and nutrients metabolism in rat. International Journal of Molecular Science,11, 1048–1056.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. D’Mello, F. J. P. 1991. Toxic amino acids. In: D’Mello FJP, Duffus CM, Duffus JH (Eds), Toxic substances in crop plants. The Royal Society of Chemistry, Thomas Graham House, Science Park, Cambridge CB4 4WF, Cambridge, pp. 22–48.Google Scholar
  21. Daxenbichler, M. E., Vanetten, C. H., Haallinan, E. A., Earle, F. R. and Barclay, A. S. 1971. Seeds as sources of L-dopa. Journal of Medical Chemistry, 14, 463–465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. De Metz, M., Soute, B. A. M., Hemker, H. C. and Vermeer, C. 1982. The inhibition of vitamin K-dependent carboxylase by cyanide. FEBS LETTERS, 132, 253–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Diarra, S. S. 2013. Potential of mango (Magnifera indica L.) seed kernel as a feed ingredient for poultry: a review. World Poultry Science Journal, 70, 279–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Diarra, S. S., Saleh, B., Kwara, I. D. and Igwebuike, J. U. 2011. Evaluation of boiled mango kernel meal as energy source by broiler chickens in the semiarid zone of Nigeria. International Journal of Science and Nature, 2(2),270–274.Google Scholar
  25. Dube, J. S., Reed, J. D. and Ndlovu, L. R. 2001. Proanthocyanidins and other phenolics in Acacia leaves of Southern Africa. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 91, 59–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Durunna, C. S., Chiaka, I. I., Udedibie, A. B. I., Ezeokeke, C. T. and Obikaonu, H. O. 2009. Value of bitter leaf (Vernonia amygdalina) leaf meal as feed ingredients in the diets of finisher broiler chickens. Proceeding International Conference on Global Food crisis held at FUTO, Nigeria between April 19–21, 2009. pp: 38–42.Google Scholar
  27. Embaby, H. E. 2011.Effect of heat treatments on certain anti-nutrients and in vitro protein digestibility of peanut and sesame seeds. Food Science Technology Research, 17 (1), 31–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Emenalom, O. O. and Udedibie, A. B. I. 1998. Effect of dietary raw, cooked and toasted Velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens) seed on the performance of finisher broilers. Nigerian Journal of Animal Production, 25,115–119.Google Scholar
  29. Emenalom, O. O., Etuk, E. B., Esonu, B. O., Udedibie, A. B. Ia and Ogbuewu, I. P. 2009. Use of Alchornea cordifolia seeds as feed ingredients for poultry. Proceedings of International Conference on Global Food Crisis, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, pp: 118–123.Google Scholar
  30. Esiegwu, A. C., Emenalom, O. O., Enyenihi, G. E., Okoli, I. C. and Udedibie, A. B. I. 2013. The performance and egg quality characteristics of layers fed diets containing graded levels of Garcinia kola seed meal. Nigerian Journal of Animal Production, 40,39–44Google Scholar
  31. Esonu, B. O., Iheukwumere, F. C., Emenalom, O. O., Uchegbu, M. C. and Etuk, E. B. 2002. Performance, nutrient utilization and organ characteristics of broilers fed Microdesmis puberula leaf meal. Livestock Research for Rural Development, 14,1–5.Google Scholar
  32. Esonu, B. O., Opara, M. N., Okoli, I. C., Obikaonu, H. O., Udedibie, C. and Iheshiulor, O. O. M. 2006. Physiological responses of laying birds to neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) leaf meal based diets, body weight, organs characteristics and haematology. Online Journal of Health and Allied Science, 2: 4.Google Scholar
  33. Etchu, K. A., Egbunike, G. N. and Woogeng, I. N. 2013. Evaluation of the fertility of broiler breeder cocks fed on diets containing differently processed sweet potato tuber in a humid tropical environment. International Journal of Livestock Production, 4(5), 82–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Etuk, E. B., Anopueme, B., Etuk, I. F., Ekpo, J. S., Emenalom, O. O. and Esonu, B. O. 2013. Effect of different combination levels of palm kernel cake, yam peel and plantain peal meals as partial replacement for maize in broiler starter diets. Nigerian Journal of Animal Production, 40 (1),73–78.Google Scholar
  35. Etuk, E. B., Ugwu, C. C., Inyama, E. and Ugorji, C. 2014. Blood chemistry, haematology, carcass characteristics and organ weight of finisher broilers fed breadfruit (Treculia africana) hull (BFH) in diets. Comparative Clinical Pathology, 3(23), 1153–1158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Farag, M. D. E. H. 1998. The nutritive value for chicks of full-fat soybeans irradiated at up to 60 kGy. Animal Feed Science Technology, 73, 319–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Francis, G., Makkar, H. P. S. and Becker, K. 2001. Antinutritional factors present in plant derived alternate fish feed ingredients and their effects in fish. Aquaculture, 199, 197–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ghazy, M. A. 1990. Effect of g-irradiation on some antinutritional factors in kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L) seeds. Minia Journal of Agricultural Research Development, 12,1965–1980.Google Scholar
  39. Gopinger, E., Xavier, E. G., Elias, M. C., Catalan, A. A., Castro, M. L., Nunes, A. P. and Roll, V. F. 2014. The effect of different dietary levels of canola meal on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and gut morphology of broiler chickens. Poultry Science, 93(5), 1130–1136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hafez, B. and Hafez, E. S. E. 2000. Reproduction in farm animals. 7th Edition. Lippincoh Williams and Wikkins, USA, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Houghton, P. J. and Skari, K. P. 1994. The effect on blood clotting of some West African plants used against snakebite. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 44, 99–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hudson, B. J. F. and Ogunsua, A. O. (1974) Lipids of cassava (Manihot esculenta crantz) tubers. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 25:1503–1508.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Ibitoye, E. B., Olorede, B. R., Jimoh, A. A. and Suleiman, N. 2010. The rabbit industry and alternative feedstuffs: a review. In: Proceedings of 35th Annual Conference Nigerian Society of Animal Production, pp 207–211.Google Scholar
  44. Idowu, O. M. O., Oduwefo, A. and Eruvbetetine, D. 2005. Performance and hypocholesterolaemic response of laying hens fed cassava root sievate based diets. Nigerian Journal of Animal Production, 32:215–223.Google Scholar
  45. Igile, G. O. 1996. Phytochemical and biological studies on some constituents of bitter leaf (Vernonia amygdalina ) leaves. Ph.D. thesis, Department of Biochemistry, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.Google Scholar
  46. Iheukwumere, F. C., Okoli, I. C., Anyanwu, G. A. and Esonu, B. O. 2005. Growth performance, haematological and serum biochemical constituents of grower rabbits fed Microdesmis puberula, Hook – Euphorbiaceae. Animal Production Research Advances, 1(1), 24–31.Google Scholar
  47. Iyayi, E. A. and Taiwo, V. O. 2003. The effect of diets incorporating Mucuna (Mucuna pruriens) seed meal on performance of laying hens and broilers. Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems, 1:239–246.Google Scholar
  48. Jenkins, K. J. and Atwal, A. S. 1994. Effects of dietary saponins on faecal bile acids and neutral sterols and availability of vitamins A and E in the chick. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 5, 134–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Jiwuba, P. C., Ahamefule. F. O., Ogbuewu, I. P. and Ikwunze, K. 2017. Blood chemistry and haematology of West African Dwarf Goats fed Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) in their diet. Comparative Clinical Pathology, pp. 1–5.
  50. Kaankuka, F. G., Balogun, T. F. and Yaakugh, I. D. I. 2000. Effect of duration of cooking raw fullfat soybeans on dry matter digestibility and energy utilization by young pigs. Proceedings of Annual Conference Nigerian Society for Animal Production held at Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, pp.191–193.Google Scholar
  51. Khan, Q. S. H., Sadar, R. and Anjum, M. A. 2007. Effects of dietary garlic powder on performance and serum and egg yolk cholesterol concentration in laying hens. Asian-Australian Journal of Animal Sciences, 21, 22–27.Google Scholar
  52. Lanchance, P. A. and Molina, M. R. (1974) Nutritive value of a fibre free coconut protein extract obtained by an enzymatic chemical method. Journal of Food Science, 39, 581–523.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lauk, L., Galeti, E. M., Kirjavainen, S., Forestieri, A. M. and Travato, A. 1993. Analgesic and antipyretic effects of Mucuna pruriens. International Journal of Pharmacognosy, 31, 213–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Liener, I. E. 1980. Toxic constituents of plant foodstuffs. Academic Press, New York 10003, NY, pp. 1–502.Google Scholar
  55. Lim, K. S., You, S. J., An, B. K. and Kang, C. W. 2006. Effects of dietary garlic powder and copper on cholesterol content and quality characteristics of chicken eggs. Asian-Australian Journal of Animal Science, 19: 582–586.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Mada, S. B., Garba, A., Mohammed, A., Muhammad, A., Olagunju, A. and Mohammed, H. A. 2012. Effects of boiling and roasting on anti-nutrients and proximate composition of local and some selected improved varieties of Arachis hypogaea L. International Journal of Food Nutrition and Safety, 1(1), 45–53.Google Scholar
  57. Mahmoud, K. Z., Saad, M., Gharaibeh, H., Zakaria, A. and Amer, M. 2010. Garlic (Allium sativum) supplementation influence on egg production, quality, and yolk cholesterol level in layer hens. Asian-Australian Journal of Animal Sciences, 23,1503–1509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Makkar, H. P. S. 2000. Antinutritional factors in foods for livestock. In: Gill M, Owen E, Pollot GE, Lawrence TLJ. (Eds) Animal production in developing countries. Occasional Publication No. 16. British Society for Animal Production, pp: 69–85.Google Scholar
  59. Mansoub, N. H. 2011. Assessment of the effect of thyme on egg quality and blood parameter of laying hens. Annals of Biological Research, 2:417–422.Google Scholar
  60. Michelangeli, C. and Vargas, R. E. 1994. L-canavanine influences feed intake, plasma basic amino acid concentrations and kidney arginase activity in chicks. Journal of Nutrition, 124, 1081–1087.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Mohan, J., Tyagi, P. K., Pramad, K. T., Verma, S. V. S. and Mougal, R. P. 1997. Anti-fertility effect of neem seed kernel meal in chickens. Australian Journal of Animal Science, 10, 609–613.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Mottaghitalab, M. and Taraz, Z. 2002. Effects of garlic (Allium sativum) on egg yolk and blood serum cholesterol concentration in Aryan breed laying hens. British Poultry Sciences 43,S42-S43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Mueller, I. 2001. Analysis of hydrolysable tannins. Animal Feed Science Technology, 91, 3–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Noirault, J. and Brillard, J.P. 1999. Effects of frequency of semen collection on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of semen in turkey breeder males. Poultry Science, 78, 1034–1039CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. NRC, 1994. Nutrient requirements of poultry. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  66. NRC, 1998. Nutrient requirement of poultry, 10th Revised Edition. National Academy Press, Washington DC.Google Scholar
  67. Nuhu, F. 2010. Effect of Moringa leaf meal on nutrient digestibility, growth, carcass and blood indices of weaner rabbits. MSc Thesis. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana.Google Scholar
  68. Nwosu, J. N. 2010. Effect of soaking, blanching and cooking on the anti-nutritional properties of asparagus bean (Vigna Sesquipedis) flour. Food Science Technology Research, 16 (1), 31–38.Google Scholar
  69. Obikaonu, H. O., Okoli, I. C., Opara, M. N., Okoro, V. M. O., Ogbuewu, I. P., Etuk, E. B. and Udedibie, A. B. I. 2011 Haematological and serum biochemical indices of starter broilers fed neem (Azadirachta indica). Online Journal of Animal Feed Research, 1,150–154.Google Scholar
  70. Odoemelam, V. U., Ukachukwu, S. N., Ogbuewu, I. P., Ahamefule, F. O., Esonu, B. O. and Ekwe, C. C. 2010. Harnessing the agronomic and nutritional potentials of Canavalia plagiosperma for the Nigerian livestock industry: a review. Proceedings of 44th Annual Conference of Agricultural Society of Nigeria LAUTECH, pp: 677–679.Google Scholar
  71. Odunsi, A. A., Adegbile, S. A., Akande, T. O. and Olayeni, T. B. 2009. Neem (Azadirachta indica) seed cake in the diets of cockerel chickens. Int J Poult Sci 8(1):47–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Ogbuewu, I. P. 2008. Physiological responses of rabbits fed graded levels of neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf meal, MSc. Thesis. Federal University of Technology Owerri.Google Scholar
  73. Ogbuewu, I. P. 2012. Studies on the physiological responses of rabbits to ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizome powder, PhD Thesis. Federal University of Technology Owerri.Google Scholar
  74. Ogbuewu, I. P., Okoli, I. C. and Iloeje, M. U. 2009. Semen quality characteristics, reaction time, testis weight and seminiferous tubule diameter of buck rabbits fed neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) leaf meal based diets. Iranian Journal of Reproductive Medicine, 7 (1), 23–28.Google Scholar
  75. Ogbuewu, I. P., Emenalom, O. O. and Okoli, I. C. 2015. Alternative feedstuffs and their effects on blood chemistry and haematology of rabbits and chickens: a review. Comparative Clinical Pathology, 24 (6), 1–10.Google Scholar
  76. Ogbuewu, I. P., Jiwuba, P. D., Okoro, V. M. O., Mbajiorgu, C. A. and Okoli, I. C. 2016. Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf and kernel and their effects on production and physiology of poultry: a review. Comparative Clinical Pathology, 24 (6), 1–9.Google Scholar
  77. Ogundipe, S. O. 1980. Effects of boiling and boiling/roasting on subsequent utilization of soybeans by chickens. Ph.D. Dissertation, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  78. Okehie, U. N. 2006. Effect of fermented Alchornea cordifolia seed meal on the performance, internal organ characteristics and blood composition of finisher broilers. Project Report, Department of Animal Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology Owerri, Nigeria.Google Scholar
  79. Okoli, I. C., Nwogu, C. M., Etuk, I. F., Omede, A. A., Ogbuewu, I. P., Aladi, N. O., Okoro, V. M. O., Opara, M. N., Ezema, C., Uchegbu, M. C., Ekenyem, B. U., Anyanwu, G. A., Okeudo, N. J., Udedibie, A. B. I. and Madubuike, F. N. 2014. Plantain ash enhances dietary mineral elements absorption in pullets. Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science, 4(2), 69–72.Google Scholar
  80. Ologhobo, A. D. 1992. Nutritive values of some tropical (West African) legumes for poultry. Journal of Applied Animal Research, 2(2), 93–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Omeje, S. K. 1999. Issues in animal science. Raykennedy Scientific Publication, Enugu, Nigeria.Google Scholar
  82. Onu, P. N. and Aniebo, A. O. 2011. Influence of Moringa oleifera leaf meal on the performance and blood chemistry of starter broilers. International Journal of Food, Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, 1 (1), 38–44.Google Scholar
  83. Onwueme, I. C. 1978. The tropical tuber crops. John Wiley and Sons Ltd., New York. pp. 274Google Scholar
  84. Onwuka, I. B. 2006. Preliminary study on the effect of Alchornea cordifolia seed meal on the performance and blood composition of starter broilers. Project Report, Department of Animal Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology Owerri, Nigeria.Google Scholar
  85. Radwan, N., Hassan, R. A., Qota, E. M. and Fayek, H. M. 2008. Effect of natural antioxidant on oxidative stability of eggs and productive and reproductive performance of laying hens. International Journal of Poultry Science, 7:134–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Ravindran, V. and Ravindran, G. 1988. Nutritional and antinutritional characteristics of mucuna (Mucuna utilis) bean seeds. Journal of Science, Food and Agriculture, 46, 71–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Raza, T., Chand, N., Khan, R. U., Shahid, M. S. and Abudabos, A. M. 2016. Improving the fatty acid profile in egg yolk through the use of hempseed (Cannabis sativa), ginger (Zingiber officinale), and turmeric (Curcuma longa) In the diet of Hy-Line white leghorns. Archives Animal Breeding, 59, 183–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Rumsey, G. L., Hughes, S. G. and Winfree, R. A. 1993. Chemical and nutritional evaluation of soy protein preparations as primary nitrogen sources of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Animal Feed Science Technology, 40,135–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Sadeghi, G. H., Mohammadi, L., Ibrahim, S. A. and Gruber, K. J. 2009. Use of bitter vetch (vicia ervilia) as a feed ingredient for poultry. World Poultry Science Journal, 65,51–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Saleh, A. A., Ebeid, T. A. and Abudabos, A. M. 2018. Effect of dietary phytogenics (herbal mixture) supplementation on growth performance, nutrient utilization, antioxidative properties and immune response in broilers. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 25, 14606–14613.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Sallau, A. B., Mada, S. B., Ibrahim, S. and Ibrahim, U. 2012. Effect of boiling, simmering and blanching on the antinutritional content of Moringa oleifera leaves. International Journal of Food Nutrition and Safety, 2(1), 1–6.Google Scholar
  92. Soetan, K. O. and Oyewole, O. E. 2009. The need for adequate processing to reduce the anti-nutritional factors in plants used as human foods and animal feeds: a review. African Journal of Food Science (9), 223–232.Google Scholar
  93. Togun, V. A., Farinu, G. O. and Olabanji, R. 2006. Effect of graded levels of wild sunflower (Tithonia diversifolia Hemsl A. Gray) meal in prepubertal diets on the morphometric characteristics of the genitalia and some organs of Isa brown cocks at the pubertal age. American-Eurasian Journal of Scientific Research, 1 (1), 61–67.Google Scholar
  94. Uchegbu, M. C., Ogbuewu, I. P., Abakporo, J. U., Durunna, C. S. and Opara, M. N. 2007. Performance of weaner pigs fed diet containing fermented maize milling waste. Animal Production Research Advances, 3(1), 23–26.Google Scholar
  95. Uchegbu, M. C., Ibekwe, A. O., Ogbuewu, I. P., Obikaonu, H. O., Nwaodu, C. H. and Okoli, I. C. 2009a. Feed intake and growth rate of finisher broilers fed diets containing raw and cooked Napoloena imperialis seed meal. Revista Cientifica UDO Agricola, 9 (2), 635–656.Google Scholar
  96. Uchegbu, M. C., Ogbuewu, I. P., Iwu, T. J., Nwaodu, C. H. and Anyanwu, G. A. 2009b. Effect of feeding sun-dried cocoyam (Xanthosoma sagittifolium) corm meal on the performance of starter broilers. International Journal Tropical Agriculture and Food System, 3 (4): 331–334.Google Scholar
  97. Uchegbu, M. C., Herbert, U., Ogbuewu, I. P., Nwaodu, C. H., Esonu, B. O. and Udedibie, A. B. I. 2011. Performance and egg quality characteristics of layers fed diets containing combinations of brewers dried grains, jack bean and cassava root meal. Revista Cientifica UDO Agricola, 11 (1), 155–160.Google Scholar
  98. Udedibie, A. B. I. and Nwaiwu, J. 1988. The potential of jackbean (Canavalia ensiformis) (L) DC.) as animal feed. Nigerian Agricultural Journal, 23,118–129.Google Scholar
  99. Udedibie, A. B. I., Anyaegbu, B. C., Onyechekwa, G. C. and Egbuokporo, O. R. 2004. Effect of feeding level of fermented and unfermented cassava tuber meals on the performance of broilers. Nigerian Journal Animal Production, 3, 60–66.Google Scholar
  100. Ukachukwu, S. N., Shoyinka, V. O. and Obioha, F. C. 2003. Chronic toxicity of raw Lyon’s beans (Mucuna cochinchinensis) in broilers. Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems, 2:23–30.Google Scholar
  101. Uko, O. J. and Kamalu, T. N. 2008. Trend of food consumption and efficiency of broiler production with raw and heat treated neem kernels. Archive Zootec, 57,489–496.Google Scholar
  102. van der Peol, A. F. B. 1989. Effects of processing on antinutritional factors and nutritional value of legume seeds for non-ruminant feeding. In: Huisman J, Van der Poel AFB, Liener IE, (eds), Recent advances research in antinutritional factors in legume seeds. Pudoc, Wageningen, pp. 213–229.Google Scholar
  103. Walter, H. L., Fanny, L., Charles, C. and Christian, R. 2002. Minerals and phytic acid interaction: is it a real problem for human nutrition. International Journal Food Science Technology, 37, 727–739.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Yeoh, H. and Yruong, V. 1993. Quantitative analysis of linamarin in cassava using β-glucosidase electrode. Food Chemistry 47: 295–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Yusuf, M. 2014. Semen quality and egg hatchability in local turkey fed diets containing Moringa oleifera and Gongronema latifolium leaf meal. M.Sc. Thesis, Department of Animal Science, University of Nigeria Nsukka.Google Scholar
  106. Zanu, H. K., Asiedu, P., Tampuori, M., Abada, M. and Asante I. 2012. Possibilities of using moringa (Moringa oleifera) leaf meal as a partial substitution for fishmeal in broiler chicken diets. Journal of Animal and Feed Research, 2(1), 70–75.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Agriculture and Animal HealthUniversity of South AfricaJohannesburgSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations