Tropical Animal Health and Production

, Volume 51, Issue 2, pp 313–319 | Cite as

Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine herpes virus-1 in Zanjan Province, Iran

  • Amir Mehdi Erfani
  • Mehran BakhsheshEmail author
  • Mohammad Hosein Fallah
  • Majid Hashemi
Regular Articles


Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine herpes virus-1 (BHV-1) remain as the major pathogens with heavy economic consequences in Iran. The prevalence of antibodies against BVDV and BHV-1, the rate of BVDV persistently infected (PI) animals, and associated risk factors were evaluated in a cross-sectional study carried out in Zanjan Province, Northwest Iran, in December 2011. A total number of 562 cattle in 10 herds and five cities were randomly selected, and their serum samples were tested to detect antibodies to these viruses and also BVDV antigen-positive (PI) animals. The data were analyzed with Pearson’s correlation coefficient, chi-square, and logistic regression test. In total, nine and eight of the selected herds were seropositive to BVDV and BHV-1, respectively. The overall seroprevalence of these infections were estimated at 28.6 and 10.7% for BVDV and BHV-1, respectively, and 0.53% of the samples were detected as persistently infected. Statistical analysis revealed that sex, age, and farming system are risk factors for both infections (P < 0.05), while breed was determined as a strong risk factor only for BVDV (P < 0.001). In addition, the present study certainly identifies that infection with BVDV is associated with infection to BHV-1 (OR = 4.52, 95% CI: 2.60–7.80; P ˂ 0.001). The results add our knowledge about the prevalence and associated risk factors of BVDV and BHV-1 in Iran and imply that the prophylactic and surveillance strategies need to be implemented to reduce the risk of spread of these viruses.


BRD Epidemiology Risk factors 



The authors are gratefully thankful to the veterinary general office of Zanjan Province and Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute for financial support and technical assistance during sampling and laboratory procedures.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Veterinary OrganizationZanjanIran
  2. 2.Department of Animal Virology, Research and DiagnosisRazi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Organization (AREEO)KarajIran
  3. 3.Department of Avian Diseases, Research and DiagnosisRazi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Organization (AREEO)KarajIran
  4. 4.Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Shiraz Branch, Agricultural Research, Education and Organization (AREEO)ShirazIran

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