Phylogenetic analysis of the lumpy skin disease viruses in northwest of Iran
Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is a devastating viral disease of cattle which has recently spread from Africa into the countries of the Middle East. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships among lumpy skin disease viruses (LSDV) isolated from different regions of Iran and the origin and spread of these viruses. In this study, a total of 234 blood samples from clinically affected animals from four provinces in the northwest of Iran were screened for LSDV using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). From 80 positive samples for LSDV detected by PCR, the partial P32 gene (759 bp) of 12 isolates were sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed. LSD viruses were grouped in three subclusters with an overall 97.1–100% nucleotide identity. LSDVs isolated from Gilan showed lowest nucleotide identity with the other LSDVs. Four isolates of LSDV including KO-1, EA-1, EA-3, and WA-3 showed 100% similarity with each other and also with the Neethling strain. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the identified LSDVs were closely related to each other and had high-sequence homology with other LSDV isolates from Africa. It was concluded that LSD outbreak probably occurred in the northwest of Iran by LSDVs entering the country from Iraq and P32 nucleotide sequence information obtained in the present study is a valuable resource in understanding the genetic nature and molecular epidemiology of local LSDV isolates which can be used for future vaccine development based on the circulating strains in the region.
KeywordsEpidemiology Iran Lumpy skin disease Phylogenetic analysis P32 gene
The authors extend their gratitude to Dr. N. Nowruzi, Dr. A. Piryounesi, and M. Alamdari for their assistance in the collection of samples. We are also grateful to Urmia University for funding this project.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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