Effects of enzyme supplementation on the nutrient, amino acid, and energy utilization efficiency of citrus pulp and hawthorn pulp in Linwu ducks
- 51 Downloads
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of enzyme supplementation on the nutrient, amino acid, and energy utilization efficiency of citrus pulp and hawthorn pulp as unusual feedstuffs in Linwu ducks. Forty ducks were assigned to each treatment group and fed diets with or without complex enzyme supplementation. All birds received the same quantity of raw material (60 g) via the force-feeding procedure. With the exception of leucine and phenylalanine, amino acid concentrations in hawthorn pulp were twice those in citrus pulp. Enzyme supplementation significantly increased apparent dry matter digestibility (ADM) of citrus pulp (P < 0.05), but had no significant effects (P > 0.05) on the apparent and true utilization rates of other nutrients, apparent metabolizable energy (AME), or true metabolizable energy (TME), from citrus pulp and hawthorn pulp by Linwu ducks. However, enzyme supplementation significantly increased (P < 0.05) apparent gross energy, true gross energy, AME, and TME of hawthorn pulp for Linwu ducks. There were no differences in the apparent and true utilization rates of amino acids from citrus pulp (P > 0.56) between the groups, with the exception of arginine (P < 0.05). There was an increasing trend in the apparent and true utilization rates of alanine (P = 0.06) and tyrosine (P = 0.074) from citrus pulp with enzyme supplementation. The apparent and true utilization rates of threonine in hawthorn pulp were increased significantly (P < 0.05) following enzyme supplementation. The addition of exogenous enzymes improved the forage quality of citrus pulp and hawthorn pulp, which represent potential feed resources for husbandry production.
KeywordsCitrus pulp Exogenous enzyme Hawthorn pulp Linwu ducks Nutritional assessment
This study was funded by the Agricultural Science and Technology Innovation Program (ASTIP-IBFC02), Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Ethics committee approval
All protocols used in the study were approved by the Hunan Institute of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine Animal Care and Use Committee (Permit No. 2016–012).
- Abbasi, H., Seidavi, A., Liu, W., Asadpour, L., 2015. Investigation on the effect of different levels of dried sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) pulp on performance, carcass characteristics and physiological and biochemical parameters in broiler chicken, Saudi Journal of Biological Science, 22, 139–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Agustí, M., Mesejo, C., Reig, C., Martínezfuentes, A., 2014. Citrus production, horticulture plants for people and places, 159–195.Google Scholar
- Association of Official Analytical Chemists–AOAC, 2007. Official methods of analysis. 18th ed. Washington DC.Google Scholar
- Dominguez, A. D. M., Cuevas, A. C., Martinez, B. F., Coello, C. L., Gonzalez, E. A., 2009. Effect of supplementing an enzyme mixture in sorghum plus soybean meal diets on apparent ileal amino acid and protein digestibility, metabolizable energy, and productivity in broilers, Tecnica Pecuaria Mexico, 47, 15–25.Google Scholar
- Kaczmarek, S. A., Rogiewicz, A., Mogielnicka, M., Rutkowski, A., Jones, R. O., Slominski, B. A., 2014. The effect of protease, amylase, and nonstarch polysaccharide-degrading enzyme supplementation on nutrient utilization and growth performance of broiler chickens fed corn-soybean meal-based diets, Poultry Science, 93, 1745–1753.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ma, S. L. Y., Lu, Y. M., 2016. Classification and phylogenetic analysis of Chinese hawthorn assessed by plant and pollen morphology. Genetics and Molecular Research, 15 (3): gmr.15038739.Google Scholar
- Mulyantini, N. G. A., Bryden, W. L., 2010. The effect of enzyme supplementation on apparent ileal amino acid digestibility of broilers fed sorghum or wheat, Animal Production, 12, 169–174.Google Scholar
- Mushtaq, T., Sarwar, M., Ahmad, G., Mirza, M. A., Nawaz, H., Mushtaq, M. M., Noreen, U., 2007. Influence of canola meal-based diets supplemented with exogenous enzyme and digestible lysine on performance, digestibility, carcass, and immunity responses of broiler chickens, Poultry Science, 86, 2144–2151.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mushtaq, T., Sarwar, M., Ahmad, G., Mirza, M. A., Ahmad, T., Noreen, U., Mushtaq, M. M. H., Kamran, Z., 2009. Influence of sunflower meal based diets supplemented with exogenous enzyme and digestible lysine on performance, digestibility and carcass response of broiler chickens, Animal Feed Science and Technology, 149, 275–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- National Reaearch Council (U.S.) Subcommittee on Poultry Nutrition, 1984. Nutrient requirements of poultry (Eighth Revised Edition). National Academy Press, Washington DC.Google Scholar
- Ponte, P. I. P., Ferreira, L. M. A., Soares, M. A. C., Aguiar, M. A. N. M., Lemos, J, P. C., Mendes, I., Fontes, C. M. G. A., 2004. Use of cellulases and xylanases to supplement diets containing alfalfa for broiler chicks: effects on bird performance and skin color, Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 13, 412–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar