Tropical Animal Health and Production

, Volume 50, Issue 7, pp 1485–1491 | Cite as

Growth performance, economic benefits and sensory characteristics of meat from broilers finished on Acacia anguistissima leaf meal-based diets

  • James Madzimure
  • Rumbidzai Motsi
  • Archibold G. Bakare
  • Milton Zimondi
Regular Articles


The objective of the study was to determine growth performance, viscera organ development, economic benefit and sensory characteristics of meat from broilers finished on Acacia anguistissima leaf meal-based diets. One hundred and eighty Cobb 500-day-old chicks were used in the study. Acacia anguistissima was used as a protein source and included in broiler diets at 0, 50 and 100 g/kg. Total feed intake (TFI), average daily gain (ADG), and gain to feed ratio (G:F) and cost benefit analysis were determined. There were no differences in TFI of broilers across treatments diets. Average daily gain and gain to feed (G:F) ratio were low (P < 0.05) for broilers feeding on diet with100 g/kg acacia meal. Highest returns from weight gain were obtained from broiler chickens fed on diet with 50 g/kg inclusion level of A. anguistissima (P < 0.05). Intestinal length increased with inclusion level of A. anguistissima whereas liver and spleen weight decreased with inclusion level of A. anguistissima (P < 0.05). Female consumers gave higher scores for overall flavour intensity than male consumers (P < 0.05). Treatment diets influenced consumer sensory characteristics of broiler meat (P < 0.05). High sensory scores were observed for overall flavour intensity (OFI) for both boiled and deep fried meat from broilers fed 100 g/kg A. anguistissima. It can be concluded that A. anguistissima meal can be used effectively up to 50 g/kg in broiler diets without compromising performance of chickens and can influence a few sensory characteristics.


Finishing broilers Growth performance Leguminous leaf meal Viscera organs Consumer sensory characteristics 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. Aliani, M. and Farmer L. J., 2005. Precursors of chicken flavor. I. Determination of some flavor precursors in chicken muscle. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 53: 6067–6072.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. AOAC, 2005. Official Methods of Analysis, 18th ed. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem, Washington, DC, USA.Google Scholar
  3. Babiker, M. S., 2012. Chemical composition of some non-conventional and local feed resources for poultry in Sudan. International Journal of Poultry Science, 11 (4): 283–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Banjo, O. S., 2012. Growth and performance as affected by inclusion of Moringa oleifera leaf meal in broiler chicks diet. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare, 2 (9): 35–38.Google Scholar
  5. Barros, C. R., Rodrigues, M. A. M., Nunes, F. M., Kasuya, M. C. M., da Luz, J. M. R., Alves, A., Ferreira, L. M. M., Pinheiro, V. and Mourão, J. L. 2015. The effect of Jatropha curcas seed meal on growth performance and internal organs development and lesions in broiler chickens. Available Accessed 12/06/2017.
  6. Bedford, M. R., 1996. Interactions between ingested feed and the digestive system in poultry. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 5(1), 85–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chulayo, A., Muchenje, V., Mwale, M. and Masika, P., 2011. Effects of some medicinal plants on consumer sensory characteristics of village chicken meat. African Journal of Biotechnology, 10(5): 815–820.Google Scholar
  8. Damerow, G., 1995. A Guide to Raising Chickens. Storey Books.Google Scholar
  9. Das, R., Pawar, D. P. and Modi, V. K., 2013. Quality characteristics of battered and fried chicken: comparison of pressure frying and conventional frying. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 50: 284–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dunlavy, K. A. and Lamkey, J. W., 1995. Dextrose level and oven temperature effects onwarmed-over flavor development in beef top round roast. Journal of Muscle Foods, 6: 63–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dyubele, N. L., Muchenje, V., Nkukwana, T. T. and Chimonyo, M., 2010. Consumer sensory characteristics of broiler and indigenous chicken meat: A South African example. Food Quality and Preference, 21: 815–819CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fanatico, A. C., Pillai, P. B., Emmert, J. L., Gbur, E. E., Meullenet J. F. and Owens, C. M., 2007. Sensory attributes of slow- and fast-growing chicken genotypes raised indoors or with outdoor access. Poultry Science 86: 2441–2449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Frutos, P., Hervás, G., Giráldez, F. J. and Mantecón, A. R., 2004. Review. Tannins and ruminant nutrition. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research, 2 (2): 191–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gadzirayi, C. T, Masamba, B., Mupangwa, J. F., and Washaya, S., 2012. Performance of broiler chickens fed on mature Moringa oleifera leaf meal as a protein supplement to soyabean meal. International Journal of Poultry Science, 11(1): 5–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Garcia, R. G., Mendes, A. A., Sartori, J. R., Paz, I. C. L. A., Takahashi, S. E., Pelícia, K., Komiyama, C. M., and Quinteiro, R. R., 2004. Digestibility of feeds containing sorghum, with and without tannin, for broiler chickens submitted to three room temperatures. Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science, 6 (1): 55–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Halimani, T. E., Ndlovu, L. R., Dzama, K., Chimonyo, M. and Miller, B. G., 2007.Growth performance of pigs fed on diets containing Acacia karroo, Acacia nilotica and Colophospermum mopane leaf meals. Livestock Research for Rural Development, 19 (12).Google Scholar
  17. Hlatini, V. A., Khanyile, M., Zindove, T. J. and Chimonyo, M., 2016. Feed intake and growth performance of growing pigs fed on Acacia tortilis leaf meal treated with polyethylene glycol. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 48(3), 585–591.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hoda, I., Ahmad, S. and Srivastava, A. K., 2002. Effect of microwave oven processing, hot air oven cooking, curing and polyphosphate treatment on physico-chemical, sensory and textural characteristics of buffalo meat products. Journal of Food Science Technology, 39 (3): 240–245.Google Scholar
  19. Iheukwumere, F. C., Ndubuisi, E.C., Mazi, E. A. and Onyekwere, M. U., 2008. Performance, nutrient utilisation and organ characteristics of broiler fed Cassava leaf meal (Manihote sculenta). Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 7(1): 13–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. ISO (International Organisation for Standardisation) 1993. Sensory analysis; general guidance for selection, training and monitoring of assessors. Part I. Selected assessors. ISO 8586-1:1993. ISO, Geneva, Switzerland, 26p.Google Scholar
  21. Jayasena D. D., Ahn D. U., Nam, K. C. and Jo, C., 2013. Flavour Chemistry of Chicken Meat: A Review. Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Science 26: 732–742.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Jørgensen, H., Zhao, X. Q., Knudsen, K. E. B. and Eggum, B. O., 1996. The influence of dietary fibre source and level on the development of the gastrointestinal tract, digestibility and energy metabolism in broiler chickens. British Journal of Nutrition, 75(3):379–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kiyohara, R., Yamaguchi, S., Rikimaru, K. and Takahashi, H., 2011. Supplemental arachidonic acid-enriched oil improves the taste of thigh meat of Hinai-jidori chickens. Poultry Science 90:1817–1822.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kruchten, T., 2002. “U.S Broiler Industry Structure”. National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS), Agricultural Statistics Board, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Retrieved May 23, 2017.Google Scholar
  25. Lyon, B. G., Smith, D. P., Lyon, C. E. and Savage, E. M., 2004. Effects of diet and feed withdrawal on the sensory descriptive and instrumental profiles of broiler breast fillets. Poultry Science 83: 275–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Madzimure, J., Bakare, A. G., Gwiriri, L. and Masaka, L., 2017. Growth performance of broilers fed on sprouted-roasted guar bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) based diets. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 49: 1009–1013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Mottram, D. S., 1991. Meat. In: Volatile Compounds in Foods and Beverages (Ed. H. Maarse). Marcel Dekker, New York. pp. 107–177.Google Scholar
  28. Muchenje, V., Dzama, K., Chimonyo, M., Strydom, P.E., Hugo, A. and Raats, L.G., 2008. Sensory evaluation and its relationship to physical meat quality attributes of beef from Nguni and Bonsmara steers raised on natural pasture. Animal, 2(11): 1700–1706.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ncube, S., Hamudikuwanda, H. and Banda, P., 2012. The potential of Acacia anguistissima leaf meal as a supplementary feed source in broiler finisher diets. International Journal of Poultry Science, 11(1): 55–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ng’ambi, J. W., Nakalebe, P. M., Norris D., Malatje M. S. and Mbajiorgu, C. A., 2009. Effects of dietary energy level and tanniferous acacia karroo leaf meal level of supplementation at finisher stage on performance and carcass characteristics of Ross 308 broiler chickens in South Africa. International Journal of Poultry Science, 8 (1): 40–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ngambu, S., Muchenje, V., and Marume, U., 2012. The effect of Acaciakarroo supplementation and thermal preparation on meat sensory characteristics of the indigenous Xhosa lop-eared goat genotype. African Journal of Biotechnology, 11(65): 878–884.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ngwa, T. A., Nsahlai, I. V. and Iji, P. A., 2004. Ensilage as a means of reducing the concentration of cyanogenic glycosides in the pods of Acacia sieberiana and the effect of additives on silage quality. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 84: 521–529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Nyachoti, C. M., Atkinson, J. L. and Leeson, S., 1996. Response of broiler chicks fed a high tannin sorghum diets. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 5: 239–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Odenyo, A. A., Osuji, P. O., Reed, J. D., Smith, A. H., Mackie, R. I., McSweeney, C. S. and Hanson, J., 2003. Acacia anguistissima: Its anti-nutrients constituents, toxicity and possible mechanisms to alleviate the toxicity – a short review. Agroforestry Systems, 59: 141–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Perez-Alvarez, J. A., Sendra-Nadal, E., Sanchez-Zapata, E. J. and Viuda-Martos, M., 2010. Poultry flavour: General aspects and applications. In: Handbook of Poultry Science and Technology Volume 2: Secondary Processing (Ed. I. Guerrero-Legarreta and Y. H. Hui). John Wiley and Sons Inc, New Jersey. pp. 339–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Poste, L. M., 1990. A sensory perspective of effect of feeds on flavor in meats: Poultry meats. Jourmal of Animal Science, 68: 4414–4420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Statistical Analysis Systems (SAS), 2008. SAS/STAT User’s Guide, Release 9.1.3. SAS Institute Inc, Cary, North Carolina, USA.Google Scholar
  38. Takahashi, H., Rikimaru K., Kiyohara R. and Yamaguchi, S., 2012. Effect of arachidonic acid-enriched oil diet supplementation on the taste of broiler meat. Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Science, 25: 845–851.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Xazela, N. M., Chimonyo, M., Muchenje, V. and Marume, U., 2011. Consumer sensory evaluation of meat from South African goat genotypes fed on a dietary supplement. African Journal of Biotechnology, 10(20): 4436–4443.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • James Madzimure
    • 1
  • Rumbidzai Motsi
    • 1
  • Archibold G. Bakare
    • 2
  • Milton Zimondi
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Animal Production and TechnologyChinhoyi University of TechnologyChinhoyiZimbabwe
  2. 2.College of Agriculture, Fisheries and ForestryFiji National UniversitySuvaFiji
  3. 3.Grasslands Research InstituteMaronderaZimbabwe

Personalised recommendations