Prevalence of bovine and avian tuberculosis in camel herds and associated public health risk factors in Isiolo County, Kenya
A cross-sectional study was conducted among 308 lactating camels selected from 15 herds from three different camel milk clusters in Isiolo County, Kenya, to determine prevalence of bovine and avian tuberculosis using Single Comparative Intradermal Tuberculin Skin test. Seventy-five (75) questionnaires were administered to pastoralists/herders, and focus group discussions were conducted among 3–5 pastoralists/herders selected from each camel herd to collect information on camel husbandry and health management practices and knowledge on tuberculosis in livestock and wildlife. An overall prevalence of bovine and avian reactors was 3.57 and 18.18%, respectively, with bovine and avian reactors for different clusters being 2.38, 3.82, and 4.48% and 25, 17.2, and 11.94%, respectively. There was significant difference (p < 0.05) in prevalence of bovine and avian reactors between different clusters. There was a negative correction (r = −0.1399) between herd size and bovine reactors, while there was a positive correlation (r = 0.0445) between herd size and avian reactors. The respondents indicated that camel herds are exposed to several risk factors like close contact with other herds or livestock or wildlife during grazing and at watering points. Pastoralists have poor knowledge on mode of infection and transmission of bovine or avian tuberculosis. The high prevalence of bovine and avian reactors and pastoralists’ poor knowledge on mode of transmission signify potential risk to public health.
KeywordsBovine tuberculosis Avian tuberculosis Mycobacterium bovis Mycobacterium avium Atypical mycobacteria Zoonosis Risk factors
We highly acknowledge the technical assistance from Mr. Alfred Mainga and Mr. Nicanor Odongo, University of Nairobi; Miss Linnet Mwangi, Egerton University; and Mr. Patrick Muthui of Isiolo County Veterinary Office. Our gratitude goes to Dr. Joseph Nduati Githinji, Isiolo County Veterinary Office, for the technical advice and allowing us to work in the county. We thank the Kenya Camel Association and Isiolo County National government for their assistance with field logistics. We also wish to thank all herders and pastoralists for their willingness to participate in the study.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Ameni, G., Hewinson, G., Aseffa, A., Young, D., Vordermeier, M. 2008. Appraisal of Interpretation Criteria for the Comparative Intradermal Tuberculin Test for Diagnosis of Tuberculosis in Cattle in Central Ethiopia, Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, 15, 1272–1276.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Basit, A., Hussain, M., Ayaz, S., Shahid, M., Rahim, K., Ahmad, I., Ullah, R., Hashem, A., Abd-Allah, E., Alqarawi, A.A., Gul, N. 2015. Isolation and identification of Mycobacerium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis from animal tissue by convectional and molecular methods. Indian Journal animal Research, 49(5), 687–693.Google Scholar
- Bezos, J., Romero, B., Delgado, A., Alvarez, J., Casal, C., Venteo, A., Gonzalez, I., Domínguez, L., de Juan, L. 2014. Evaluation of the specificity of intradermal tuberculin and serological tests for diagnosis of tuberculosis in alpaca (Vicugna pacos) and llama (Lama glama) herds under field conditions in Peru, Veterinary Record, 174, 532–539.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ereqat, S., Nasereddin, A., Levine, H., Azmi, K., Al-Jawabreh, A., Greenblatt, C.L., Abdeen, Z., Bar-Gal, G.K. 2013. First-time detection of Mycobacterium bovis in livestock tissues and milk in the West Bank, Palestinian Territories, PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 7(9), e2417.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- FAOSTAT, 2015. Food and Agriculture Organization Statistical Database, https//www.fastat.fao.org/ accessed 23 August, 2015.
- Hassan, M.K., Rahman, M.M., Kisku, J.J., Rahman, M.B, Rahman, M.M, Rahman, M.M. 2016. Prevalence of bovine and avian tuberculosis in calves of central cattle breeding and dairy farm, savar, dhaka. Journal Innovation Development and Strategy, 10(2), 5–12.Google Scholar
- Jibril, Y., Mamo, G., Hanur, I., Zewude, A., Ameni, G. 2016. Prevalence of camel tuberculosis and associated risk factors in camels slaughtered at Akaki Abattoir, Ethiopia. Ethiopian Veterinary Journal, 20(1), 23–38Google Scholar
- Kahla, B., Boschiroli, M.L., Souissi, F., Cherif, N., Benzarti, M., Boukadida, J., Hammami, S. 2011 Isolation and molecular characterization of Mycobacterium bovis from raw milk in Tunisia, African Health Science, 11(1), S2 - S5.Google Scholar
- Kelly, R.F., Hamman, S.M., Morgan, K.L., Nkongho, E.F., Ngwa, V.N., Tanya, V., Andu, W.N., Sander, M., Ndip L., Handel, I.G., Mazeri, S., Muwonge, A., Bronsvoort, B.M. de C. 2016. Knowledge of bovine tuberculosis, cattle husbandry, and dairy practices amongst pastoralists and small-scale dairy farmers in Cameroon, PLoS ONE, 11(1), e0146538.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- KNBS. 2010. Kenya 2009 population and housing census. Vol II: Population and household distribution by socio-economic characteristics. Kenya National Bureau of Statistics, Government of Kenya.Google Scholar
- Moiane, I., Machado, A., Santos, N., Nhambir, A., Inlamea, O., Hattendorf, J., Kallenius, G., Zinsstag, J., Correia-Neves, M. 2014. Prevalence of bovine tuberculosis and risk factor assessment in cattle in rural livestock areas of Govuro District in the Southeast of Mozambique, PLoS One, 9(3), e91527.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Mwangi, L.W., Matofari, J.W., Muliro, P.S., Bebe, B.O. 2016. Occurrence of brucella and mycobacteria species in raw and fermented camel milk along the value chain. Asian Journal Agriculture and Food Science, 4(4), 212–218.Google Scholar
- Nalapa D.P, Muwonge A, Kankya C, Olea-Popelka F. 2017. Prevalence of tuberculous lesion in cattle slaughtered in Mubende district, Uganda, BMC Veterinary Research, 13:7–81.Google Scholar
- OIE, 2009. Bovine tuberculosis. Chapter 2.4.7. In OIE Terrestrial Manual 2009. Version adopted by the World Assembly of Delegates of the OIE in May 2009.Google Scholar
- OIE, 2017. Bovine Tuberculosis. Chapter 11.6. In Manual of diagnostic tests and vaccines for terrestrial animals. The World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). Edition: 8, #231686, ISBN-13: 9789295108189.Google Scholar
- Sharma S, Patil P.K, Kumar H, Mahajan V, Filia G, Verma S, Sandhu K.S. 2011. Bovine tuberculosis in intensive dairy operations of Punjab: longitudinal comparative study on prevalence and the associated risk factors, Indian Journal Comparative Microbiology, Immunology Infectious Diseases, 32:41–44.Google Scholar
- Twomey, D.F., Collins, R., Cranwell, M.P., Crawshaw, T.R., Higgins, R.J., Dean, G.S., Vordermeier, H.M., Hollingdale, A., De la Rua-Domenech, R. 2012. Controlling tuberculosis in a llama (Lama glama) herd using clinical signs, tuberculin skin testing and serology, The Veterinary Journal, 192, 246–248.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- WHO, 2016. Global Tuberculosis Report 2016. World Health Organization, Geneva.Google Scholar
- Zarden C.F.O, Marassi C.D, Figueiredo E.E.E.S, Lilenbaum W. 2013. Mycobacterium bovis detection from milk of negative skin test cows. Veterinary Records. 172:130–132.Google Scholar