Skip to main content
Log in

Long-term changes in the spatial distribution of lumpy skin disease hotspots in Zimbabwe

  • Regular Articles
  • Published:
Tropical Animal Health and Production Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

Outbreaks of lumpy skin disease (LSD) are reported almost every year in Zimbabwe but not much is known regarding whether the pattern of the disease is changing in response to major socio-economic programmes such as the land reform launched in 2000. In this paper, geo-referenced data of LSD cases was used to detect and map significant LSD hotspots over a 20-year period (1995–2014). The hotspots were then overlaid on top of a land tenure map to explore whether hotspots have spread or persist in some land tenure types. The main results are that LSD outbreaks are on the rise and the disease is spreading throughout the country with areas formerly large-scale commercial farms now experiencing more outbreaks. These results suggest that regular vaccination should be now recommended in most districts in the country.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Abutarbush, S.M., Ababneh, S.M., Al Zoubi, I.G., Al Sheyab, O.M., Al Zoubi, O.M., Alekish, M.O. Al Gharabat, R.J., 2015. Lumpy Skin Disease in Jordan: Disease Emergence, Clinical Signs, Complications and Preliminary-associated Economic. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, 62, 549-554.

  • AEDI (African Economic Development Institute). 2009. The failing economy of Zimbabwe. (http://www.africaecon.org/index.php/exclusives/read_exclusive/1/2).

  • Alkhamis, M.A. and VanderWaal., 2016. Spatial and Temporal Epidemiology of Lumpy Skin Disease in the Middle East, 2012-2015, Frontiers in Veterinary Science, doi: 10.3389/fvets.2016.00019

  • Barro, A.S., Kracalik, I.T., Malania, L., Tsertsvadze, N.L., Manvelyan, J., Imnadze, P. and Blackburn, J.K., 2015. Identifying hotspots of human anthrax transmission using three local clustering techniques, Applied Geography, 60, 29–36.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Benjamini, Y. and Yekutieli, D., 2001. The control of the false discovery rate in multiple testing under dependency, The Annals of Statistics, 29, 1165–1188.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chihota, C.M., Rennie, L.F., Kitching, R.P. and Mellor, P.S., 2001. Mechanical transmission of lumpy skin disease virus by Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae), Epidemiology and Infection, 126, 317–321.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Chihota, C.M., Rennie, L.F., Kitching, R.P. and Mellor, P.S., 2003. Attempted mechanical transmission of skin disease virus by biting insects, Medical and Veterinary Entomology, 17, 294–300.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Chikerema, S.M., Pfukenyi, D.M., Matope, G. and Bhebhe, E., 2012. Temporal and spatial distribution of cattle anthrax outbreaks in Zimbabwe between 1967 and 2006, Tropical Animal Health and Production, 44, 63–70.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Davies, F.G., 1991. Lumpy skin disease: a growing problem in Africa and the Near East, World Animal Review, 68, 37–42.

    Google Scholar 

  • Department of the Surveyor General. 1979. Zimbabwe Land classification, Government Printers, Harare.

    Google Scholar 

  • EFSA (European Food Safety Authority). 2015. Scientific Opinion on Lumpy Skin Disease. European Food Safety Authority Journal, Doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2015.3986.

  • Gari, G., Waret-Szkuta, A., Grosbois, V., Jacquiet, P. and Roger, F., 2010. Risk factors associated with observed clinical lumpy skin disease in Ethiopia, Epidemiology and Infection, 138, 1657–1666.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Getachew, G., Waret-Szkuta, A., Grosbois, V. and Jacquite, P. and Roger, F., 2010. Risk factors associated with observed clinical lumpy skin disease in Ethiopia, Epidemiology and Infection, 138(11), 1657-1566.

  • Getis, A. and Ord, J.K., 1992. The analysis of spatial association by use of distance statistics, Geographical Analysis, 24, 189–196.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jacquez, G., Waller, L., Grimson, R. and Wartenberg, D., 1996. The analysis of disease clusters, Part 1: state of the art, Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology, 17, 319–327.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kracalik, I.T., Blackburn, J.K., Lukhunova, L., Pazilov, Y., Hugh-Jones, M.E. and Aikimbayev, A., 2012. Analysing the spatial patterns of livestock anthrax in Kazakhstan in relation to environmental factors: a comparison of local (Gi) and morphology cluster statistics, Geospatial Health, 7, 111–126.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Magori-Cohen, R., Louzoun, Y., Herziger, Y., Oron, E., Arazi, A., Tuppurainen, E., Shipgel, Y. N. and Klement, E., 2012. Mathematical modeling and evaluation of the different routes of transmission of lumpy skin disease virus, Veterinary Research, 43, 1.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Matope, G., Bhebhe, E., Muma, J.B., Lund, A. and Skjerve, E., 2010. Herd-level factors for Brucella seropositivity in cattle reared in smallholder dairy farms of Zimbabwe, Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 94, 213–221.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Mitchell, A., 2005. The ESRI Guide to GIS analysis, Volume 2: Spatial measurements and statistics, ESRI Press, Redlands, California.

    Google Scholar 

  • OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health). 2010. OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals, Lumpy skin disease, Chapter 2.4.14, pp 768–778.

  • Ord, J. K. and Getis, A., 1995. Local spatial autocorrelation statistics: distributional issues and an application, Geographical Analysis, 27, 286–306.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Scoones, I. and Wolmer, W., 2007. Land, landscapes and disease: The case of foot and mouth in southern Zimbabwe, South African Historical Journal, 58, 42–64.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tasioudi, K.E., Antoniou, S.E., Iliadou, P., Sachpatzdis, A., Plevraki, E., Agianniotaki, E.I., Fouki, C., Mangana-Vougiouka, O., Chodrokouki, E. and Dile, C., 2016. Emergence of Lumpy Skin Disease in Greece, 2015, Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, 63, 260–265.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Tuppurainen, E.S.M. and Oura, C.A.L., 2012. Review: Lumpy Skin Disease: Am Emerging Threat to Europe, the Middle East and Asia, Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, 59, 40–48.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Silvester M. Chikerema.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Swiswa, S., Masocha, M., Pfukenyi, D.M. et al. Long-term changes in the spatial distribution of lumpy skin disease hotspots in Zimbabwe. Trop Anim Health Prod 49, 195–199 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-016-1180-9

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-016-1180-9

Keywords

Navigation