Tropical Animal Health and Production

, Volume 47, Issue 5, pp 877–882 | Cite as

Replacing soybean meal for wet brewer’s grains or urea on the performance of lactating dairy cows

  • Hugo Imaizumi
  • Fernanda Batistel
  • Jonas de Souza
  • Flávio Augusto Portela SantosEmail author
Regular Articles


The purpose of this research was to evaluate the partial replacement of soybean meal (SBM) for wet brewer’s grains (WBG) or urea on the performance of lactating dairy cows. The second investigated whether WBG ensiled with corn kept animal performance in low- and high-producing dairy cows compared with WBG. In experiment I, 40 Holstein cows were used in 4 × 4 Latin square design. The treatments comprised WBG or urea as partial replacement for SBM, as follows: control (diet based on SBM and 1 % of urea), 10 % of WBG, 20 % of WBG, and 2 % of urea. Dry matter intake (DMI) was not affected by treatments. WBG increased milk yield linearly, but it decreased with urea. Milk fat content responded quadratically to WBG levels. Milk protein content decreased, while plasma urea nitrogen increased with high urea addition. In experiment II, 42 Holstein cows were divided into two groups according to production levels. Eighteen cows composed the group of low producing, while the high-producing group comprised 24 cows. The experimental design was a crossover with two periods of 14 days. The experimental treatments consisted of feeding WBG or WBG ensiled with ground corn. Regardless of the production level, no difference in milk yield and milk composition between treatments was observed.


Protein source Soybean meal Urea Wet brewer’s grains 



To FAPESP for the financial support.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. Aliyu, S., Bala, M., 2011. Brewer’s spent grain: A review of its potentials and applications. African Journal of Biotechnology, 10, 324–331.Google Scholar
  2. Amézqueta, S., González-Peñas, E., Murillo-Arbizu, M., López de Cerain, A. 2009. Ochratoxin A decontamination: A review. Food Control, 20, 326–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arriola Apelo, S.I., Knapp, J.R., Hanigan, M.D. 2014. Invited review: Current representation and future trends of predicting amino acid utilization in the lactating dairy cow. Journal of Dairy Science, 97, 4000–4017.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bahrami-Yekdangi, H., Khorvash, M., Ghorbani, G.R., Alikhani, M., Jahanian, R., Kamalian, E. 2014. Effects of decreasing metabolizable protein and rumen-undegradable protein on milk production and composition and blood metabolites of Holstein dairy cows in early lactation. Journal of Dairy Science, 97, 3707–3714.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Brito, A.F., Broderick, G.A. 2007. Effects of different protein supplements on milk production and nutrient utilization in lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 90, 1816–1827.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Carmo, C.A., Batistel, F., De Souza, J., Martinez, J.C., Correa, P., Pedroso, A.M., Santos, F.A.P. 2015. Starch levels on performance, milk composition and energy balance of lactating dairy cows. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 47, 179–184.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Chiou, P.W.S., Chen, C.R., Chen, K.J., Yu, B. 1998. Wet brewers’ grains or bean curd pomance as partial replacement of soybean meal for lactating dairy cows. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 74, 123–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cozzi, G., Polan, C.E. 1994. Corn gluten meal or dried brewers grains as partial replacement for soybean meal in the diet of Holstein cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 77, 825–834.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Firkins, J.L., Harvatine, D.I., Sylvester, J.T., Eastridge, M.L. 2002. Lactation performance by dairy cows fed wet brewers grains or whole cottonseed to replace forage. Journal of Dairy Science, 85, 2662–2668.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Giallingo, F., Hristov, A.N. Oh, J., Frederick,T., Weeks, H., Werner, J., Lapierre, H., Paltton, R.A., Gehman, A., Parys, C. 2015. Effects of slow-release urea and rumen-protected methionine and histidine on performance of dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, In Press. DOI: 10.3168/jds.2014-8791.Google Scholar
  11. Miyazawa, K., Sultana, H., Hirata, T., Kanda, S., Itabashi, H. 2007. Effect of brewer’s grain on rumen fermentation, milk production and milk composition in lactating dairy cows. Animal Science Journal, 78, 519–526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Moate, P.J., Willians, S.R.O., Grainger, C., Hannah, M.C., Ponnampalam, E.N., Eckard, R.J. 2011. Influence of cold-processed canola, brewers grains and hominy meal as dietary supplements suitable for reducing enteric methane emissions from lactating dairy cows. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 166, 254–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Santos, F.A.P., Santos, J.E.P., Theurer, C.B., Huber, J.T. 1998. Effects of rumen-undegradable protein on dairy cow performance: a 12 years literature review. Journal of Dairy Science, 81, 3182–3213.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Sinclair, L.A., Blake, C.W., Griffin, P., Jones, G.H. 2012. The partial replacement of soyabean meal and rapeseed meal with feed grade urea or a slow-release urea and its effect on the performance, metabolism and digestibility in dairy cows. Animal, 6, 920–927.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Stojceska, V., Ainsworth, P., Plunkett, A., Ibanoglu, S. 2008. The recycling of brewer’s processing by-product into ready-to-eat snacks using extrusion technology. Journal of Cereal Science, 47, 469–479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Van Soest, P.J., Robertson, J., Lewis, B. 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and total nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science, 74, 3583–3597.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Wanapat, M., Foiklang, S., Rowlinson, P., Pilajun, R. 2012. Effect of carbohydrate sources and cotton seed meal in the concentrate: II. Feed intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in beef cattle. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 44, 35–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Wang, F., Nishino, N. 2008. Ensiling of soybean curd residue and wet brewers grains with or without other feeds as a total mixed ration. Journal of Dairy Science, 91, 2380–2397.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Wang, B., Luo, Y., Myung, K.H., Liu, J.X. 2014. Effects of storage duration and temperature on the chemical composition, microorganism density, and in vitro rumen fermentation of wet brewers grains. Asian-Australian Journal of Animal Sciences, 6, 832–840.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. West, J.W., Ely, L.O., Martin, S.A. 1994. Wet brewers grains for lactating dairy cows during hot, humid weather. Journal of Dairy Science, 77, 196–204.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Younker, R.S., Winland, S.D., Firkins, J.L., Hull, B.L. 1998. Effects of replacing forage fiber or nonfiber carbohydrates with dried brewers grains. Journal of Dairy Science, 81, 2645–2656.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hugo Imaizumi
    • 1
  • Fernanda Batistel
    • 1
  • Jonas de Souza
    • 2
  • Flávio Augusto Portela Santos
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Animal ScienceUniversity of São PauloPiracicabaBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Animal ScienceMichigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA

Personalised recommendations