Tropical Animal Health and Production

, Volume 46, Issue 7, pp 1313–1316 | Cite as

Association between cattle herd Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection and infection of a hare population

  • Miguel Salgado
  • Gustavo MontiEmail author
  • Iker Sevilla
  • Elizabeth Manning
Short Communications


Paratuberculosis has long been considered a disease of domestic and wild ruminants only. The known host range of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) was recently extended to include non-ruminant wildlife species believed to be exposed to spillover of MAP from infected domestic cattle herds. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between cattle herd MAP infection pressure level and the infection level of a hare population in two dairy farms of southern Chile. Fifty hares from a herd A and 42 hares from herd B were captured and sampled for MAP culture. The results showed a statistically significant association between the cattle herds’ infection prevalence and the hare infection prevalence.


Paratuberculosis MAP Hare Cattle Transmission Spillover 



This research was funded by FONDECYT/CHILE Project 1085069

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. Broekhuizen, S., Maaskamp, F., 1979. Age determination in the European hare (Lepus europaeus Pallas) in the Netherlands. Z. Säugetierkd, 44, 162–175.Google Scholar
  2. Buergelt, C.D., Ginn, P.E., 2000. The histopathologic diagnosis of subclinical Johne’s disease in North American bison (Bison bison). Veterinary Microbiology, 77, 325–331.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Florou, M., Leontides, L., Kostoulas, P., Billinis, C., Sofia, M., Kyriazakis, I., Lykotrafitis, F., 2008. Isolation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from non-ruminant wildlife living in the sheds and on the pastures of Greek sheep and goats. Epidemiology and Infection, 136, 644–652.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Judge, J., Davidson, R., Marion, G., White, P.C.L., Hutchings, M.R., 2007. Persistence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in rabbits: the inter-play between horizontal and vertical transmission. Journal of Applied Ecology, 44, 302–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Maio, E., Carta, T., Balseiro A., Sevilla, I.A., Romano, A., Ortiz, J.A., Vieira-Pinto, M., Garrido, J.M., de la Lastra, J.M., Gortázar, C., 2011. Paratuberculosis in European wild rabbits from the Iberian Peninsula. Research in Veterinary Science. 91, 212–218.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Nielsen, S.S., Toft, N., 2008. Ante mortem diagnosis of paratuberculosis: A review of accuracies of ELISA, interferon-gamma assay and faecal culture technique. Veterinary Microbiology, 129, 217–235.Google Scholar
  7. Nugent, G., Whitford, E.J., Hunnam, J.C., Wilson, P.R., Cross, M.L., de Lisle, G.W., 2011. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in wildlife on three deer farms with a history of Johne’s disease. New Zealand Veterinary Journal, 59, 293 298. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Pérez, V., Garcia-Marín, J.F., Badiola, J.J., 1996. Description and classification of different types of lesion associated with natural paratuberculosis infection in sheep. Journal Comparative Pathology 114, 107–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Salgado, M., Collins, M.T., Salazar, F., Kruze, J., Bölske, G., Söderlund, R., Juste, R., Sevilla, I.A., Biet, F., Troncoso, F., Alfaro, M., 2011a. Fate of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis after application of contaminated dairy cattle manure to agricultural soils. Journal Applied Environmental Microbiology, 77, 2122–2129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Salgado, M., Manning, J.B.E., Monti. G., Bölske, G., Söderlund, R., Ruiz, M., Paredes, E., Leiva, S., Van Kruningen, H., Kruze, J., 2011b. Hares in Chile: a different lagomorph reservoir for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis? Journal Wildlife Disease, 47, 734–738.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Salgado, M., Alfaro, M., Salazar, F., Troncoso, E., Mitchell, R.M., Ramirez, L., Naguil, A., Zamorano, P., Collins, M.T., 2013. Effect of soil slope on appearance of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in water running off grassland soil after contaminated slurry application. Journal Applied Environmental Microbiology, 79, 3544–3552.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Stevenson, K., Alvarez, J., Bakker, D., Biet, F., de Juan, L., Denham, S., Dimareli, Z., Dohmann, K., Gerlach, G.F., Heron, I., Kopecna, M., May, L., Pavlik, I., Sharp, J. M., Thibault, V.C., Willemsen, P., Zadoks, R.N., Greig, A., 2009. Occurrence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis across host species and European countries with evidence for transmission between wildlife and domestic ruminants. BMC Microbiology, 9, 212.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Sweeney, R.W., Whitlock, R.H., Rosenberger, A.N., 1992. Mycobacterium paratuberculosis isolated from fetuses of infected cows not manifesting sings of the disease. American Journal Veterinary Research, 53, 477–480.Google Scholar
  14. Thibault, V.C., Grayon, M., Boschiroli, M.L., Hubbans, C., Overduin, P., Stevenson, K., Gutierrez, M.C., Supply, P., Biet, F., 2007. New variable-number tandem- repeat markers for typing Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and M. avium strains: comparison with IS900 and IS1245 restriction fragment length polymorphism typing. Clinical Microbiology, 45, 2404–2410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. van Soolingen, D., Hermans, P.W.M., de Haas, P.E.W., Sool, D.R., van Embden, J.D.A., 1991. The occurrence and stability of insertion sequences in Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains: evaluation of an insertion sequence-dependent DNA polymorphism as a tool in the epidemiology of tuberculosis. Clinical Microbiology, 29, 2578–2586.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Miguel Salgado
    • 1
  • Gustavo Monti
    • 2
    Email author
  • Iker Sevilla
    • 3
  • Elizabeth Manning
    • 4
  1. 1.Biochemistry and Microbiology Department, Faculty of SciencesUniversidad Austral de ChileValdiviaChile
  2. 2.Institute of Preventive Veterinary Medicine - Faculty of Veterinary SciencesUniversidad Austral de ChileValdiviaChile
  3. 3.Instituto Vasco de Investigación y Desarrollo Agrario (NEIKER)DerioSpain
  4. 4.School of Veterinary MedicineUniversity of Wisconsin-MadisonMadisonUSA

Personalised recommendations