Skip to main content

Antibodies to Schmallenberg virus in domestic livestock in Turkey


This, partly retrospective study, was designed to determine the seroprevalence of Schmallenberg virus (SBV), a new Orthobunyavirus first reported in Germany in late 2011, in domestic ruminants from the Middle Black Sea, West, and Southeast regions of Turkey. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to screen serum samples collected from slaughterhouse animals between 2006 and 2013. The overall seroprevalence was 335/1,362 (24.5 %) with 325/816 (39.8 %), 5/307 (1.6 %), 3/109 (2.8 %), and 2/130 (1.5 %) recorded in cattle, sheep, goats, and Anatolian water buffalo, respectively. This is the first study to demonstrate the presence of antibodies to SBV in Turkish ruminants; it indicates that cattle are more susceptible to infection than sheep, goats, or buffalo and that exposure of domestic ruminants to SBV in Turkey may have occurred up to 5 years prior to the first recorded outbreak of the disease in 2011.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1


  • De Regge, N., van den Berg, T., Georges, L., and Cay, B. 2013. Diagnosis of Schmallenberg virus infection in malformed lambs and calves and first indications for virus clearance in the fetus. Veterinary Microbiology, 162, 595–600

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Garigliany, M.M., Bayrou, C., Kleijnen, D., Cassart, D., and Desmecht, D. 2012a. Schmallenberg virus in domestic cattle, Belgium, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18, 1512–1514

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Garigliany, M.M., Bayrou, C., Kleijnen, D., Cassart, D., Jolly, S., Linden, A., and Desmecht, D. 2012b. Schmallenberg virus: a new Shamonda/Sathuperi-like virus on the rise in Europe. Antiviral Research, 95, 82–87

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Garigliany, M.M., Hoffmann, B., Dive, M., Sartelet, A., Bayrou, C., Cassart, D., Beer, M., and Desmecht, D. 2012c. Schmallenberg virus in calf born at term with porencephaly, Belgium. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18, 1005–1006

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Gibbens, N. 2012. Schmallenberg virus: a novel viral disease in northern Europe. Veterinary Record, 170, 58

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Elbers, A.R.W., Loeffen, W.L.A., Quak, S., Boer-Luijtze, E.D., Spek, A.N.V.D., Bouwstra, R., Maas, R., Spierenburg, M.A.H., Kluijver, E.P.D., Schaik, G.V. and Poel, W.H.M.V.D. 2012. Seroprevalence of Schmallenberg virus antibodies among dairy cattle, the Netherlands, winter 2011–2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18, 1065–1071

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Herder, V., Wohlsein, P., Peters, M., Hansmann, F., and Baumgartner, W. 2012. Salient lesions in domestic ruminants infected with the emerging so-called Schmallenberg virus in Germany. Veterinary Pathology, 49, 588–591

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hoffmann, B., Scheuch, M., Hoper, D., Jungblut, R., Holsteg, M., Schirrmeier, H., Eschbaumer, M., Goller, K.V., Wernike, K., Fischer, M., Breithaupt, A., Mettenleiter, T.C., Beer, M. 2012. Novel orthobunyavirus in Cattle, Europe, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18, 469–472

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kaba, J., Czopowicz, M., and Witkowski, L. 2013. Schmallenberg virus antibodies detected in poland. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, 60, 1–3

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kessell, A., Finnie, J., and Windsor, P. 2011. Neurological diseases of ruminant livestock in Australia. IV: viral infections. Australian Veterinary Journal, 89, 331–337

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Linden, A., Desmecht, D., Volpe, R., Wirtgen, M., Gregoire, F., Pirson, J., Paternostre, J., Kleijnen, D., Schirrmeier, H., Beer, M., and Garigliany, M.M. 2012. Epizootic spread of Schmallenberg virus among wild cervids, Belgium, Fall 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases 18, 2006–2008

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Loeffen, W., Quak, S., de Boer-Luijtze, E., Hulst, M., van der Poel, W., Bouwstra, R., and Maas, R. 2012. Development of a virus neutralisation test to detect antibodies against Schmallenberg virus and serological results in suspect and infected herds. Acta Veterinary Scandivia, 54, 44

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Meroc, E., De Regge, N., Riocreux, F., Caij, A.B., van den Berg, T., and van der Stede, Y. 2013. Distribution of Schmallenberg virus and seroprevalence in Belgian sheep and goats. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases.

  • Rasmussen, L.D., Kristensen, B., Kirkeby, C., Rasmussen, T.B., Belsham, G.J., Bodker, R., and Botner, A. 2012. Culicoids as vectors of Schmallenberg virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18, 1204–1206

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Tarlinton, R., Daly, J., Dunham, S., and Kydd, J. 2012. The challenge of Schmallenberg virus emergence in Europe. Veterinary Journal, 194, 10–18

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yanase, T., Kato, T., Aizawa, M., Shuto, Y., Shirafuji, H., Yamakawa, M., and Tsuda, T. 2012. Genetic reassortment between Sathuperi and Shamonda viruses of the genus Orthobunyavirus in nature: implications for their genetic relationship to Schmallenberg virus. Archive Virology, 157, 1611–1616

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Ahmet Kursat Azkur or Hakan Bulut.

Additional information

Ahmet Kursat Azkur, Harun Albayrak, and Ali Risvanli contributed equally to this work.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Azkur, A.K., Albayrak, H., Risvanli, A. et al. Antibodies to Schmallenberg virus in domestic livestock in Turkey. Trop Anim Health Prod 45, 1825–1828 (2013).

Download citation

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: