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Efficacy of Strychnos spinosa (Lam.) and Solanum incanum L. aqueous fruit extracts against cattle ticks

Abstract

The efficacy of Solanum incanum and Strychnos spinosa aqueous fruit extracts was evaluated against cattle ticks in on-station experiments and laboratory tick bioassays. In the on-station experiment using cattle, fruit extracts were applied at three concentrations 5, 10, and 20 % (w/v) and compared with a commercial acaricide, Tickbuster® (amitraz) spray (positive control) and no treatment (negative control). The treatments were applied at weekly intervals for 6 weeks as surface sprays on 32 Mashona cattle in a completely randomized design experiment. Ticks on individual cattle were identified, counted, and recorded daily. Peripheral blood samples were collected for parasite screening. In the laboratory, tick bioassays were conducted at four concentrations, 5, 10, 20, and 40 % (w/v) fruit extracts compared to Tickbuster® (amitraz) spray (positive control) and distilled water (negative control). The extracts were incubated with Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus tick larvae and mortalities for each treatment level recorded after 24 and 48 h. The 5 % Solanum incanum treatment had higher efficacy ratio (P < 0.05) than the other fruit extract concentrations of the same plant species. Efficacy ratio was higher (P < 0.05) in the 5 % S. spinosa-treated cattle than in the untreated control but lower (P < 0.05) than that for the amitraz treatment. The bioassays indicated that there was a high efficacy ratio for the lowest fruit extract concentrations when ticks were exposed to acaricidal treatments for 48 h compared to 24 h. Overall, the results indicate that Solanum incanum and Strychnos spinosa individually have some acaricidal effect.

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Acknowledgments

The work reported was financed by the European Union, 9th European Development Fund through the Southern African Development Community (SADC) Secretariat’s Implementation and Coordination of Agricultural Research and Training (ICART) project and the Africa Caribbean and Pacific Science and Technology program. The contents of this document are the sole responsibility of the authors and can under no circumstances be regarded as reflecting the position of the SADC Secretariat or the European Union. The authors are grateful to Henderson Research Station for supplying the test cattle, animal handling facilities, and technical support. Dr. M. Munyangani of Mazowe Veterinary College provided technical expertise in screening cattle blood samples for parasites. We also thank the Central Veterinary Laboratory staff in the Department of Veterinary Services, Ministry of Agriculture, Mechanisation and Irrigation Development, Zimbabwe; for collecting and rearing the ticks.

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Correspondence to Brighton M. Mvumi.

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Madzimure, J., Nyahangare, E.T., Hamudikuwanda, H. et al. Efficacy of Strychnos spinosa (Lam.) and Solanum incanum L. aqueous fruit extracts against cattle ticks. Trop Anim Health Prod 45, 1341–1347 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-013-0367-6

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Keywords

  • Strychnos spinosa
  • Solanum incanum
  • Tick control
  • Aqueous fruit extracts
  • Pesticidal plants
  • Acaricidal efficacy