Tropical Animal Health and Production

, Volume 45, Issue 5, pp 1183–1190 | Cite as

The association of ruminal pH and some metabolic parameters with conception rate at first artificial insemination in Thai dairy cows

  • Chaidate InchaisriEmail author
  • Somchai Chanpongsang
  • Jos Noordhuizen
  • Henk Hogeveen
Regular Articles


The objective of this study was to determine the association of metabolic parameters and cow associated factors with the conception rate at first insemination (FCR) in Thai dairy cows. The investigation was performed with 529 lactations from 32 smallholder dairy farms. At 3–6 weeks after parturition, blood samples and ruminal fluid were collected. Body condition scores (BCS) of cows were scored 1 week before expected calving date and at blood sampling date. Ruminal pH was measured at 2–4 h after morning feeding in ruminal fluid collected by ruminocentesis. Serum beta-hydroxybutyrate and serum urea nitrogen were measured by kinetic enzyme method. Cows with first insemination (AI) between 41 and 114 days postpartum were identified after pregnancy diagnosis for FCR. Breed, parity, interval from calving to first AI, BCS before calving, BCS after calving, loss in BCS after calving, SBHB, SUN, ruminal pH, and postpartum problems were selected as independent variables for a model with FCR as a dependent variable. A multivariable logistic regression model was used with farm as a random effect. Overall FCR was 27.2 %. The FCR depended on interval from calving to first AI, BCS before calving, and ruminal pH. The FCR between 69 and 91 days postpartum was significantly highest (45 %). Before calving, a cow with high BCS (≥3.5) had significantly greater FCR than a cow with low BCS (≤3.25; P < 0.01). An increased ruminal pH raised significantly FCR (OR = 2.53; P = 0.03).


Ruminal pH First insemination Conception Reproduction 



The authors thank Thailand Research Fund (TRF) for providing grant for this project and the farmers who cooperated in this study for their support.

Conflict of interest

None of the authors have any conflict of interest to declare.


  1. Alawneh, J. I., Laven, R. A. and Stevenson, M. A., 2011. The effect of lameness on the fertility of dairy cattle in a seasonally breeding pasture-based system. Journal of Dairy Science, 94, 5487–5493.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bahonar, A. R., Azizzadeh, M., Stevenson, M. A., Vojgani, M. and Mahmoudi, M., 2009. Factors affecting days open in Holstein dairy cattle in Khorasan Razavi province, Iran; a cox proportional hazard model. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 8, 747–754.Google Scholar
  3. Brown, H. and Prescott, R., 1999. Applied mixed models in medicine. John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., Chichester, UK.Google Scholar
  4. Berry, D. P., Buckley, F., Dillon, P., Evans, R. D., Rath, M. and Veerkamp, R. F., 2003. Genetic relationships among body condition score, body weight, milk yield, and fertility in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 86, 2193–2204.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Darwash, A. O., Lamming, G. E. and Woolliams, J. A., 1997. The phenotypic association between the interval to post-partum ovulation and traditional measures of fertility in dairy cattle. Animal Science, 65, 9–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. De Vries, A., Steenholdt, C. and Risco, C.A., 2005. Pregnancy rates and milk production in natural service and artificially inseminated dairy herds in Florida and Georgia. Journal of Dairy Science, 88, 948–956.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Edmonson, A. J., Lean, I. J., Weaver, L. D., Farver, T. and Webster, G., 1989. A body condition scoring chart for Holstein dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 72, 68–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ferguson, J. D., Galligan, D. T. and Thomsen, N., 1994. Principal descriptors of body condition score in Holstein cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 77, 2695–2703.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Garbarino, E. J., Hernandez, J. A., Shearer, J. K.; Risco, C. A. and Thatcher, W. W., 2004. Effect of lameness on ovarian activity in postpartum Holstein cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 87, 4123–4131.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Garrett, E. F., Pereira, M. N., Nordlund, K. V., Armentano, L. E., Goodger, W. J. and Oetzel, G. R., 1999. Diagnostic methods for the detection of subacute ruminal acidosis in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 82, 1170–1178.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gilbert, R. O., Bosu, W. T. K. and Peter, A. T., 1990. The effect of Escherichia coli endotoxin on luteal function in Holstein heifers. Theriogenology, 33, 645–651.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Heuer, C., Schukken, Y. H. and Dobbelaar, P., 1999. Postpartum body condition score and results from the first test day milk as predictors of disease, fertility, yield, and culling in commercial dairy herds. Journal of Dairy Science, 82, 295–304.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Inchaisri, C., Hogeveen, H., Vos, P., van der Weijden, G. C. and Jorritsma, R., 2010. Effect of milk yield characteristics, breed, and parity on success of the first insemination in Dutch dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 93, 5179–5187.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jackson, R. A., Wills, J. R., Kendall, N. R., Green, M. J., Murray, R. D. and Dobson, H., 2012. Energy metabolites in pre- and postpartum dairy cattle as predictors of reproductive disorders. Veterinary Record, 168.Google Scholar
  15. Khafipour, E., Krause, D. O. and Plaizier, J. C., 2009. A grain-based subacute ruminal acidosis challenge causes translocation of lipopolysaccharide and triggers inflammation. Journal of Dairy Science, 92, 1060–1070.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kleen, J. L. and Cannizzo, C., 2012. Incidence, prevalence and impact of SARA in dairy herds. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 172, 4–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kleen, J. L., Hooijer, G. A., Rehage, J. and Noordhuizen, J., 2009. Subacute ruminal acidosis in Dutch dairy herds. Veterinary Record, 164, 681–684.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kleen, J. L., Hooijer, G. A., Rehage, J. and Noordhuizen, J., 2003. Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA): a review. Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series A, 50, 406–414.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Konig, S., Chongkasikit, N. and Langholz, H. J., 2005. Estimation of variance components for production and fertility traits in Northern Thai dairy cattle to define optimal breeding strategies. Archiv Tierzucht-Archives Animal Breeding, 48, 233–246.Google Scholar
  20. Krause, K. M. and Oetzel, G. R., 2006. Understanding and preventing subacute ruminal acidosis in dairy herds: A review. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 126, 215–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lavon, Y., Ezra, E., Leitner, G. and Wolfenson, D., 2011. Association of conception rate with pattern and level of somatic cell count elevation relative to time of insemination in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 94, 4538–4545.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Loeffler, S. H., de Vries, M. J., Schukken, Y. H., de Zeeuw, A. C., Dijkhuizen, A. A., de Graaf, F. M. and Brand, A., 1999. Use of AI technician scores for body condition, uterine tone and uterine discharge in a model with disease and milk production parameters to predict pregnancy risk at first AI in holstein dairy cows. Theriogenology, 51, 1267–1284.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Morgante, M., Stelletta, C., Berzaghi, P., Gianesella, M. and Andrighetto, I., 2007. Subacute rumen acidosis in lactating cows: an investigation in intensive Italian dairy herds. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 91, 226–234.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Norman, H. D., Wright, J. R., Hubbard, S. M., Miller, R. H. and Hutchison, J. L., 2009. Reproductive status of Holstein and Jersey cows in the United States. Journal of Dairy Science, 92, 3517–3528.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Plaizier, J. C., Krause, D. O., Gozho, G. N. and McBride, B. W., 2008. Subacute ruminal acidosis in dairy cows: The physiological causes, incidence and consequences. Veterinary Journal, 176, 21–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Rukkwamsuk, T., 2011. Effect of nutrition on reproductive performance of postparturient dairy cows in the tropics: A review. Thai Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 41, 103–107.Google Scholar
  27. Sarakul, M., Koonawootrittriron, S., Elzo, M. A. and Suwanasopee, T., 2011. Factors influencing genetic change for milk yield within farms in central Thailand. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 24, 1031–1040.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Schlamberger, G., Wiedemann, S., Viturro, E., Meyer, H. H. D. and Kaske, M., 2010. Effects of continuous milking during the dry period or once daily milking in the first 4 weeks of lactation on metabolism and productivity of dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 93, 2471–2485.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Soto, P., Natzke, R. P. and Hansen, P. J., 2003. Identification of possible mediators of embryonic mortality caused by mastitis: Actions of lipopolysaccharide, prostaglandin F-2 alpha and the nitric oxide generator, sodium nitroprusside dihydrate, on oocyte maturation and embryonic development in cattle. American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, 50, 263–272.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Suzuki, C., Yoshioka, K., Iwamura, S. and Hirose, H., 2001. Endotoxin induces delayed ovulation following endocrine aberration during the proestrous phase in Holstein heifers. Domestic Animal Endocrinology, 20, 267–278.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Tenhagen, B. A., Wittke, M., Drillich, M. and Heuwieser, W., 2003. Timing of ovulation and conception rate in primiparous and multiparous cows after synchronization of ovulation with GnRH and PGF(2 alpha). Reproduction in Domestic Animals, 38, 451–454.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Windig, J. J., Calus, M. P. and Veerkamp, R. F., 2005. Influence of herd environment on health and fertility and their relationship with milk production. Journal of Dairy Science, 88, 335–347.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Zebeli, Q., Dijkstra, J., Tafaj, M., Steingass, H., Ametaj, B. N. and Drochner, W., 2008. Modeling the adequacy of dietary fiber in dairy cows based on the responses of ruminal pH and milk fat production to composition of the diet. Journal of Dairy Science, 91, 2046–2066.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chaidate Inchaisri
    • 1
    Email author
  • Somchai Chanpongsang
    • 1
  • Jos Noordhuizen
    • 2
    • 3
  • Henk Hogeveen
    • 4
  1. 1.Faculty of Veterinary ScienceChulalongkorn UniversityBangkokThailand
  2. 2.VACQA-InternationalSantarémPortugal
  3. 3.School of Animal and Veterinary ScienceCharles Sturt UniversityWagga WaggaAustralia
  4. 4.Faculty of Veterinary MedicineUtrecht UniversityUtrechtThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations