Advertisement

Tropical Animal Health and Production

, Volume 44, Supplement 1, pp 67–73 | Cite as

The multiple burdens of zoonotic disease and an ecohealth approach to their assessment

  • Delia GraceEmail author
  • Jeff Gilbert
  • Thomas Randolph
  • Erastus Kang’ethe
SI (Emerging Zoonoses)

Abstract

Zoonoses occur at the interface of human and animal disease and partly because their impact and management fall across two sectors they are often neglected. The Global Burden of Disease captures the impact of zoonoses on human health in terms of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Based on this, we estimate that in low income countries, zoonoses and diseases which recently emerged from animals make up 26 % of the DALYs lost to infectious disease and 10 % of the total DALYs lost. In contrast, in high income countries, zoonoses and diseases recently which emerged from animals represent less than 1 % of DALYs lost to infectious disease and only 0.02 % of the total disease burden. We present a framework that captures the costs of zoonoses and emerging disease to human, animal and ecosystem health in terms of cost of treatment, cost of prevention, health burden and intangible and opportunity costs. We also discuss how ecohealth concepts of transdisciplinarity, participation and equity can help in assessing the importance of zoonoses in developing countries and illustrate these with an example of assessing milk-borne disease.

Keywords

Ecohealth Zoonoses Disease burden DALYs Prioritisation 

References

  1. Anon, 2010. Report of Priority Zoonotic Diseases, AIZIP technical team meeting held in the Safari Park Hotel, Nairobi 24th March 2010.Google Scholar
  2. Asonganyi, T., Hengy, C., Louis, J.P. and Ghogomu, N.A., 1991. Reactivation of an old sleeping sickness focus in Mamfe (Cameroon): epidemiological, immunological and parasitological finding, Revue d'Epidémiologie et de Santé Publique, 39, 55–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bennett, R., Christiansen, K. and Clifton-Hadley, R., 1999. Preliminary estimates of the direct costs associated with endemic diseases of livestock in Great Britain. Preventive veterinary Medicine, 9, 39(3),155-71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cataldi A. and Romano, M.I., 2007, Tuberculosis caused by Other Members of the M. tuberculosis Complex, in: In Palomino J C, Leão S C, Ritacco V, eds. Tuberculosis 2007: from basic science to patient care. www.tuberculosistextbook.com. Accessed April 19th 2011
  5. Cole, D.C., Crissman, C.C. and Orozco, A., F., 2006, Canada's International Development Research Centre's eco-health projects with Latin Americans: origins, development and challenges, Canadian Journal of Public Health, 97(6), I8-14.Google Scholar
  6. Deaton, A., Fortson, J. and Tortora, R., 2010. Life (evaluation), HIV/AIDS, and death in Africa. In E. Diener, J. Helliwell, and D. Kahneman (eds.), International Differences in Well-Being, (Oxford University Press, Oxford)Google Scholar
  7. Duraiappah, A.K., Roddy, P.V. and Parry, J.E., 2005. Have participatory approaches increased capabilities?, (IISD Publications Centre, UK).Google Scholar
  8. Grace, D. and Randolph, T., 2009. Development of a participatory methodology to prioritise milk borne disease in data scarce environments. In: J.R. Newton and D. Pfeiffer (eds) Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine Proceedings: London, UK 1-3 April, 2009.Google Scholar
  9. Grace D, Gilbert K, Lapar L, Unger F, Fèvre F, Nguyen-Viet H, and Schelling E, 2010, Zoonotic Emerging Infectious Disease in Selected Countries in Southeast Asia: Insights from Ecohealth, Ecohealth Journal, 1-8.Google Scholar
  10. Jones, K.E., Patel, N.G., Levy, M.A., Storeygard, A., Balk, D., Gittleman, J.L. and Daszak, P. 2008. Global trends in emerging infectious diseases. Nature. 451, 990–993.Google Scholar
  11. King, C.L., and Freedman, D.O., 2000. Filariasis. In: G.T. Strickland, Hunter’s Tropical Medicine and Emerging Infectious Disease, (8th ed.), (W.B. Sanders Company, Philadelphia).Google Scholar
  12. Kristjanson, P., Reid, R., Dickson, N., Clark, W., Romney, D., et al. 2009. Linking research knowledge with action: Lessons from sustainable development livestock projects, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106(13), 5047-5052PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kuchenmüller, T., Hird, S., Stein, C., Kramarz, P., Nanda, A. and Havelaar, A.H., 2009. Estimating the global burden of foodborne diseases--a collaborative effort, Eurosurveillance 14(18), 19195.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Lebel, J., 2003. In Focus: Health. An Ecosystem Approach, (IDRC, Ottawa)Google Scholar
  15. Maudlin, I., Eisler, M.C. and Welburn, S.C., 2009. Neglected and endemic zoonoses, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B Biological Science, 364(1530), 2777-87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Murray, C.J., Salomon, J.A. and Mathers, C., 2000. A critical examination of summary measures of population health, Bulletin of the World Health Organisation, 78 (8), 981-94.Google Scholar
  17. Perry, B. and Grace, D., 2009. The impacts of livestock diseases and their control on growth and development processes that are pro-poor, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B Biological Science, 364 (1530), 2643-55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Perry B., Randolph T., McDermott J., Sones K. and Thornton P., 2002. Investing in animal health research to alleviate poverty, International Livestock Research Institute, NairobiGoogle Scholar
  19. Rosenfield, P.L., 1992. The potential of transdisciplinary research for sustaining and extending linkages between the health and social sciences. Social Science and Medicine, 35, 1343–1357PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Roth, F., Zinsstag, J., Orkhon, D., Chimed-Ochir, G., Hutton, G. et al., 2003. Human health benefits from livestock vaccination for brucellosis: case study. Bulletin of the World Health Organisation, 2003, 81(12), 867-76.Google Scholar
  21. Rozdilsky, I.D. and Stone, L.S., 2001. Complexity can enhance stability in competitive systems. Ecology Letters, 4, 397-400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Schelling, E., Grace, D., Willingham, A.L. and Randolph T.F., 2007. Research approaches for pro-poor control of zoonoses. Food and Nutrition Bulletin 28 (2 Supplement), S345-S356.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Schlundt, J., Toyofuku, H., Jansen, J. and Herbst, S.A., 2004. Emerging food-borne zoonoses, Revue Scientifique et Technique, 23(2), 513-33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Utzinger, J. and de Savginy, D. 2006. Control of neglected tropical diseases: integrated chemotherapy and beyond. PLoS Med 3(5): e112. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0030112.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Waltner-Toews, D., 2009. Ecohealth, a primer for veterinarians, Canadian Veterinary Journal, 50 (5), 519–521.Google Scholar
  26. World Bank, 2010. People, pathogens and our planet, (World Bank, Washington)Google Scholar
  27. Zinsstag, J., Schelling, E., Waltner-Toews, D. and Tanner, M., 2011. From “one medicine” to “one health” and systemic approaches to health and well-being, Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 101 (3-4), 148-156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Delia Grace
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jeff Gilbert
    • 1
  • Thomas Randolph
    • 1
  • Erastus Kang’ethe
    • 2
  1. 1.International Livestock Research InstituteNairobiKenya
  2. 2.Department of Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineUniversity of NairobiNairobiKenya

Personalised recommendations