Skip to main content

Prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in dairy cattle, cattle-keeping families, their non-cattle-keeping neighbours and HIV-positive individuals in Dagoretti Division, Nairobi, Kenya

Abstract

This paper reports a study estimating the prevalence of cryptosporidiosis, an emerging zoonosis, in people and cattle in Dagoretti, Nairobi. A repeated cross-sectional survey was carried out among randomly selected cattle keepers in Dagoretti, their dairy cattle and their non-cattle-keeping neighbours in the dry and wet seasons of 2006. A survey was also carried out among a group of people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Faecal samples were examined for Cryptosporidium oocysts using the modified Ziehl–Neelsen method; 16 % of the samples were also examined using immunofluorescence antibody (IFA) technique. Quality control consisted of blind reviews of slides, examining split samples and confirming slide results with IFA. We found that members of dairy households had a dry season cryptosporidiosis prevalence of 4 % and wet season prevalence of 0.3 %, and non-dairy households, a prevalence of 5 and 0 %, respectively. The cattle dry season prevalence was 15 %, and the wet season prevalence, 11 %. The prevalence in people living with HIV was 5 %. The laboratory quality control system showed some inconsistency within and between different tests, indicating challenges in obtaining consistent results under difficult field and working conditions. In conclusion, this is the first reported study to simultaneously survey livestock, livestock keepers and their neighbours for cryptosporidiosis. We failed to find evidence that zoonotic cryptosporidiosis is important overall in this community. This study also draws attention to the importance of quality control and its reporting in surveys in developing countries.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  • Ayuo, P.O., 2009. Human cryptosporidiosis: a review, East African Medical Journal, 86(2), 89-93.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Chako, C.Z., Tyler, J.W., Schultz, L.G., Chiguma, L. and Beerntsen, B.T., 2010. Cryptosporidiosis in people: It’s not just about the cows, Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 24 (1), 37-43.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Chunge, R.N., Simwa, J.M., Karumba, P.N., Kenya, P.R., Kinoti, S.N., Muttunga, J. and Nagelkerke, N., (1992). Comparative aetiology of childhood diarrhoea in Kakamega and Kiambu Districts, Kenya, East African Medical Journal, 69(8), 437-41.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Dohoo, I.R., Martin, W. and Stryhn, H., 2003. Veterinary Epidemiologic Research. A comprehensive text for the discipline. AVC Inc. Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada

  • Dubey, J.P., Speer, C.A. and Fayer, R., 1990. Cryptosporidiosis of Man and Animals, (CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL).

    Google Scholar 

  • Fayer, R., 2010. Taxonomy and species delimitation in Cryptosporidium, Experimental Parasitology, 124, 90-97.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gatei, W., Wamae, C.N., Mbae, C., Waruru, A., Mulinge, E., Waithera, T., Gatika, S.M., Kamwati, S.K., Revathi, G. and Hart, C.A., 2006. Cryptosporidiosis: prevalence, genotype analysis, and symptoms associated with infections in children in Kenya, American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 75(1), 78-82.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Geurden, T., Goma, F.Y., Siwila, J., Phiri, I.G., Mwanza, A.M., Gabriel, S., Claerebout, E. and Vercruysse J., 2006. Prevalence and genotyping of Cryptosporidium in three cattle husbandry systems in Zambia, Veterinary Parasitology, 138(3-4), 217-22.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Harrell, F. E. Jr., 2007, Harrell Miscellaneous Package, Version 3.4-3

  • Kange’the, E.K., McDermott, B., M’ibui, G.M., Randolph, T.F., and Langat, A.K., 2007. Investigation into the prevalence of bovine cryptosporidiosis among small-holder dairy households in Dagoretti Division, Nairobi, Kenya, East African Medical Journal, 84 (Supplement), S76–S82.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mac Kenzie, W.R., Hoxie, N.J., Proctor, M.E., Gradus, M.S., Blair, K.A., Peterson, D.E., Kazmierczak, J.J., Addiss, D.G., Fox, K.R., Rose, J.B., et al., 1994. A massive outbreak in Milwaukee of Cryptosporidium infection transmitted through the public water supply, New England Journal of Medicine, 331(3), 161-7.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Mor, S.M. and Tzipori, S., 2008, Cryptosporidiosis in children in sub-Saharan Africa: a lingering challenge, Clinical Infectious Diseases, 47(7), 915–921.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Morgan. U., Weber, R., Xiao, L., Sulaiman, I., Thompson, R.C., Ndiritu, W., Lal, A., Moore, A. and Deplazes, P., 2000. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium isolates obtained from human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals living in Switzerland, Kenya, and the United States, Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 38(3),1180-3.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Morse, T. D., Grimason, A.M. and Smith H.V., 2008. Epidemiology of diarrhoeal disease in rural Malawi—a case study of cryptosporidiosis, 33rd Water Engineering and Development Centre International Conference, Accra, Ghana, 2008.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mtambo, M.M., Sebatwale, J.B., Kambarage, D.M., Muhairwa, A.P., Maeda, G.E., Kusiluka, L.J. and Kazwala, R.R., 1997. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in cattle and wildlife in Morogoro region, Tanzania Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 31, 3-4, 185-190.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mwachari, C., Batchelor, B.I., Paul, J., Waiyaki, P.G. and Gilks, C.F., 1998. Chronic diarrhoea among HIV-infected adult patients in Nairobi, Kenya, Journal of Infection, 37(1), 48-53.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Siwilia, J., Phiri, I.G., Vercruysse, J., Goma, F., Gabriels, S., Claerebout, E. and Geurden, T., 2007. Asymptomatic cryptosporidiosis in Zambian dairy farm workers and their household members, Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 101(7), 733-4.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Swai, E.S., French, N.P., Karimuribo, E.D., Fitzpatrick, J.L., Bryant, M.J., Kambarage, D.M. and Ogden, N.H., 2007. Prevalence and determinants of Cryptosporidium spp. infection in smallholder dairy cattle in Iringa and Tanga Regions of Tanzania, Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, 74(1), 23-9.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Wee, S.H., Joo, H.D. and Kang, Y.B., 1996. Evaluation for detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in diarrheal feces of calves, Korean Journal of Parasitology, 34(2),121-6.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Xiao, L., 2010. Molecular epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis: an update, Experimental Parasitology, 124, 80-89.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

The authors wish to thank the International Research Development Centre for funding this work under the grant 103075-001. We also thank all the members of the Dagoretti agricultural and livestock extension team and all the members of the Dagoretti community, who took part in this study.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Delia Grace.

Additional information

This paper is part of a special supplement on assessing and managing urban zoonoses and food-borne disease in two African cities (Nairobi, Kenya and Ibadan, Nigeria).

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Kange’the, E., McDermott, B., Grace, D. et al. Prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in dairy cattle, cattle-keeping families, their non-cattle-keeping neighbours and HIV-positive individuals in Dagoretti Division, Nairobi, Kenya. Trop Anim Health Prod 44 (Suppl 1), 11–16 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-012-0201-6

Download citation

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-012-0201-6

Keywords

  • Cryptosporidiosis
  • Dairy cattle
  • Nairobi
  • HIV