Prevalence, bacterial causes, and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of mastitis isolates from cows in large-scale dairy farms of Northern Ethiopia

Abstract

The study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of bovine mastitis, isolate mastitis causing bacteria, assess the association of some risk factors, and determine the antibiotic resistance pattern of bacterial isolates in cows in large-scale dairy farms of Northern Ethiopia. A total of 305 lactating and nonlactating cows were included in the present study. The overall prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis was 3.6 and 33.8 %, respectively. The quarter level prevalence was 15.4 %; from which, 11.9 and 1.1 % were subclinical form and blind teat, respectively, while the remaining 2.4 % were of clinical form. Staphylococcus aureus accounted for 36 % of the isolates followed by Escherichia coli (27.3 %). Risk factors including age (p < 0.001), parity (p < 0.001), and lactation stage (p = 0.02) showed significant association with the occurrence of mastitis. Higher prevalence was observed in both groups of older cows (i.e., 6–9 years (odds ratio (OR) = 4.65, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 2.74–7.89) and >9 years (OR = 3.63, 95 % CI = 1.42–9.25)), cows with four to seven calves (OR = 3.39, 95 % CI = 2.06–5.60), and cows in late lactation stage (OR = 3.79, 95 % CI = 1.64–8.75). In multivariable logistic regression analysis, age (p = 0.005) and lactation stage (p = 0.027) showed statistically significant association with the occurrence of mastitis. The antimicrobial susceptibility pattern showed high susceptibility of S. aureus to nalidixic acid (82.4 %) followed by chloramphenicol (58.8 %); however, these species were resistant to the rest of the antimicrobials tested. Highest resistance was observed against clindamycin and ampicillin. Coliform bacteria (E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae) showed resistance to most of the antimicrobials used. Detailed investigation is needed to identify the interplay of managemental and environmental risk factors to design appropriate control measures.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. Abera, M., Demie, B., Aragaw, K., Regassa, F. and Regassa, A., 2010. Isolation and identification of Staphylococcus aureus from mastitic milk and their drug resistance patterns in Adama town, Ethiopia, Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health, 2(3), 29-34

    Google Scholar 

  2. Almaw, G., Zerihun, A. and Asfaw, Y., 2008. Bovine mastitis and its association with selected risk factors in smallholder dairy farms in and around Bahir Dar, Ethiopia, Tropical Animal Health and Production, 40(6), 427-432

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. Biffa, D., Debela, E. and Beyene, F., 2005. Prevalence and risk factors of mastitis in lactating dairy cows in Southern Ethiopia, International Journal of Applied Research in Veterinary Medicine, 3(3), 189-198

    Google Scholar 

  4. Bitew, M., Tefera, A. and Tolosa, T. 2010. Study on bovine mastitis in dairy farms of Bahir Dar town and its environs, Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 9, 2912-2917

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Bradley, A.J., 2002. Bovine mastitis an evolving disease, The Veterinary Journal, 164, 116-128

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Cappucino, J.G. and Sherman, N., 2005. Microbiology: a laboratory manual, (7th edition, Pearson Education, South Asia)

    Google Scholar 

  7. CSA, 2008. Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. Central Statistics Agency, Agricultural sample survey report on livestock and livestock characteristics. Volume II, 2007/08. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

  8. Esron, D., Karimuebo, E., Lughano, T., Kusiluka, R.H., Melegela, A.M., Kapaa, M. and Kalvin, S., 2005. Study on mastitis, milk quality and health risk associated with consumption of milk from pastoral herds in Dodoma and Morgora region, Tanzania, Journal of Veterinary Science, 6, 213-221

    Google Scholar 

  9. Getahun, K., Kelay, B., Bekana, M., and Lobago, F., 2008. Bovine mastitis and antibiotic resistance patterns in Selalle smallholder dairy farms, central Ethiopia, Tropical Animal Health and Production, 40 (4), 261-268

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Hailessilasie, M., Shewit, K. and Moses, K,, 2010. Serological survey of bovine brucellosis in barka and arado breeds (Bos indicus) of western Tigray, Ethiopia. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 94, 28-35

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Hunderra, S., Adem, Z. and Sintayehu, A., 2005. Dairy cattle mastitis in and around Sebeta, Ethiopia, International Journal of Applied Research in Veterinary Medicine, 3(4), 332-333

    Google Scholar 

  12. Javaid, S., Gadahi, B., Khaskeli, M., Bhutto, M.B., Kumbher, S. and Panhwar, A.H., 2009. Physical and chemical quality of market milk sold at Tandogem, Pakistan, Pakistan Veterinary Journal, 29 (1), 27-31

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. Kerro, O.D. and Tareke, F., 2003. Bovine mastitis in selected areas of Southern Ethiopia, Tropical Animal Health and Production, 35, 197-205

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Kivaria, F.M., Noordhuizen, J.P.T.M. and Msami, H.M., 2007. Risk factors associated with the incidence rate of clinical mastitis in smallholder dairy cows in the Dares Salaam region of Tanzania, The Veterinary Journal, 173, 623–629

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. Lemma, M., Kassa, T. and Tenagne, A., 2001. Clinically manifested major health problems of crossbred dairy herds in urban and periurban production systems in the central highlands of Ethiopia, Tropical Animal Health and Production, 33, 85-89

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Matios, L., Tadele, T. and Worku, T., 2009. Prevalence and major bacterial causes of bovine mastitis in Asella, South Eastern Ethiopia, Tropical Animal Health and Production, 41, 1525-1530

    Google Scholar 

  17. Mungube, E.O., Tenhagen, B.A., Regassa, F., Kyule, M.N., Shiferaw, Y., Kassa, T. and Baumann, M.P.O., 2005. Reduced milk production in udder quarters with subclinical mastitis and associated economic losses in crossbred dairy cows in Ethiopia, Tropical Animal Health and Production, 37, 1573–7438

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Quinn, P.J., Markey, B.K., Carter, M.E., Donelly, W.J. and Leonard, F.C., 2002. Veterinary Microbiology and Microbial Disease, (Blackwell Science Ltd, a Blackwell Publishing Company, 465-475)

  19. Regional State of Tigray Bureau of Agriculture and Rural Development (RSTBARD), 2009. Estimated animal population of Tigray region.

  20. Shiferaw, Y., Tenhagen, B.A., Bekana, M. and Kassa, T., 2003. Reproductive performance of crossbred dairy cows in different production system in the central highlands of Ethiopia. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 35, 551–561

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. Statistical Package for Social Science, Inc. (SPSS), 2002. SPSS for Window (Version 11.5) SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA

  22. Tesfaye, G., Regassa, F. and Belay, B., 2010. Milk yield and associated economic losses in quarters with subclinical mastitis due to Staphylococcus aureus in Ethiopian crossbred dairy cows, Tropical Animal Health and Production, 42, 925-931

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Wallenberg, G.J., Vanderpoel, H.M. and Vanior, J.T., 2002. Viral infection and bovine mastitis, Journal of Veterinary Microbiology, 88, 27-45

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Workineh, S., Bayleygne, M., Mekonnen, H. and Potgieter, L.N.D., 2002. Prevalence and aetiology of mastitis in cows from two major Ethiopian dairies, Tropical Animal Health and Production, 34, 19-25

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

The investigation received financial support from Agazi dairy farms, Mekelle, Northern Ethiopia. The authors are grateful to the material assistance rendered by the College of Veterinary Medicine, Mekelle University. Many thanks are due to large dairy farm owners for their keen interest in the study and cooperation during data collection. We are also thankful to Prof. S.K. Khar for extending his help in commenting the work and checking the manuscript's English.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Habtamu Taddele.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Haftu, R., Taddele, H., Gugsa, G. et al. Prevalence, bacterial causes, and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of mastitis isolates from cows in large-scale dairy farms of Northern Ethiopia. Trop Anim Health Prod 44, 1765–1771 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-012-0135-z

Download citation

Keywords

  • Antimicrobial susceptibility
  • Dairy cows
  • Mastitis
  • Northern Ethiopia
  • Prevalence
  • Risk factors